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Thermocouple-inch wide mile deep

Companies and households rely on heat sensors to function properly. It is employed in the manufacturing industry and laboratories across the nation. Even household appliances and auto parts use these sensor types to remain operative and accurate.


Thermocouples are most commonly used temperature sensor used in many types of thermometers and many of our day to day appliances some of which you might not even be ware of. Based on use
they can be divided into industrial and home TC. There working principle is universal but their make and body type are different for different purpose.

Most objects that rely on heat are probably using this device to manage heat convection, regulate temperature, and remain safe. It can measure in almost all type of environment. Ex-hot, cold, harsh, smooth, high pressure, low pressure etc. There are many types but based on use they come for industrial and home use. Otherwise there are standard grade available.

At home they are used in devices like ovens, heaters, refrigerators etc. In industries they come in the form of probes to insert in the temperature measurement region. They are used in power plants, Metal ore smelting, glass industries, nuclear furnace and any other machines or region where monitoring the temperature is necessary for safety or controlling purposes.

What are tcs?

They are the most common type of temperature sensors using plain metallic wires. Their wires are chosen so as to produce a large electromotive force that varies linearly with temperature. There is no known metal or alloy that has all of these desirable features, although some are very close to it.

Since there are no product with this perfect behavior, all electromotive force curves deviate from a straight line or linear response to some degree. In industrial applications, the choice of materials used to manufacture a range is dependent on the temperature to be measured, the type of atmosphere exposed to the material and the required accuracy of measurement.

Why they are called so?

Tcs are formed by coupling together a pair of metal and works on the application of thermal energy. Hence the name.

How were they discovered and what is their principle of operation .

There discovery date back to 1822-23 when Thomas seebeck observed a deflection in a compass needle kept near a closed circuit of two metallic wires whose two junction are at different temperature.

He also discovered that the Potential difference generated was almost directly proportional to the difference in the two temperatures for particular range depending on the type of material of which it is made.

But he thought it to be of magnetic nature .Anyhow the effect was termed Seebeck effect. Later in same century Leopoldo Nobili and Macedonio Melloni continued his work and made a device to measure heat radiation. It was simple group of metal junction in series like a thermopile combined with galvanometer. It may be the first tc made for any measuring purpose.

Working principle

If two metals of different wires are joint at two ends and if temperature of the junctions are different then a current flows through the wires.

For small changes in temperature within the operating region the Seebeck voltage or the EMF (electromotive force) is directly proportional to temperature. Voltage temperature relationship can be approximated as

T= a1( V)+a2(V)^2+a3( V)^3+….. up to N terms.

However a1(V) is quite large as compared to other coefficient and so the relationship is approximately linear for quite long range of temperature. Lot of math here huh!


However Measuring the Seebeck voltage directly is not possible because we must first connect a voltmeter to the lead wires ,and the voltmeter leads themselves create a new thermoelectric circuit at the contact point of voltmeter and tc leads.

Determining the Temperature of by measuring the voltage output.

Reference Junction

How to nullify the effect of extra junction produce

Measuring voltage is an indirect measure of temperature .But it is not possible directly. Consider the diagram above as an example.To measure the temperature we have to connect two wires of say constantan to copper (Red) and Iron to copper (Blue). And then the two ends to a voltmeter.

But Since Constantan to copper and iron to copper will itself generate some voltage it forms another junction as shown above. So we cannot determine exact temperature unless we subtract that the extra voltage difference generated at constantan- copper(Red) and Iron-copper(Blue) junction.

This is only possible if we know the temperature of reference. One way to employ this is to put the junction at reference temperature and thus know in advance the voltage which will be generated at two junctions and thus subtract it eventually to get voltage generated at target surface ie, Iron-Copper junction.


What causes sebeck effect ?

Here is a demo

Suppose a metal wire is heated at one end then electron which are free to move will tend to be denser at cold junction and less denser at hot.

So an electron gradient will be created. And so a net potential difference but since no current can flow in open loop the the potential difference is maintained by balancing two currents inside the metal wire thermal gradient current and current induced by potential difference(ohms law) caused by difference in density of electrons.

Now when two wire of different metal but at identical temperatures at hot and cold junction are joined current flows. Voltages of hot and cold junction of different metals may not be same since it depend the type of metal. So a current is established at two ends.

But the flow of electron at hot and cold junction are opposite since metal with higher hot junction potential will be having lower colder junction potential and vise versa. So the polarity of voltage difference will be opposite at two ends. This is because wire at higher voltage means higher positive charge which implies more negative charge at opposite end than the other wire.

3 Laws of Thermocouples

When connecting wires in tc circuits there are three rules or laws to keep in mind. They are

Law of homogeneous material

A current cannot flow in a single wire loop made of same material by

application of heat alone.S o if there is a temperature difference between two points along the length of a homogenous wire there will not be a voltage difference.

Law of intermediate materials

At uniform temperature the algebraic sum of the thermoelectric emfs in a circuit composed of any number of dissimilar materials is zero .So if a third metal is inserted in either of two wires and if the two new junctions are at the same temperature, there will be no net voltage generated by the new metal.
Law of successive or intermediate temperatures

Provided T1<T2<T3 then if a thermal emf1 is produced by tc made by two dissimilar homogeneous materials whose junctions are at T1 and T2 and emf2 is produced when the junctions are at T2 and T3 , the emf generated when the junctions are at T1 and T3 will be emf1 + emf2.

Advantage of using

The advantages include wide temperature ranges, inexpensive costs, variety, rugged exterior, and simple, self-powered design. The cons, however, are low voltage measurements, non-linear voltage-to-temperature conversion chart, reference requirements, low stability, and low sensitivity.

Industrial temperature measurements ranging between -200°C (-328°F) and over 1450°C (2462°F) is normally achieved with them. They are the only sensors that can be used at very low temperatures, particularly in applications where the accuracy is adequate.

Here is comparison of various sensors most common in use

Source: Omega

Junctions types and errors in thermocouples

There are three kinds of thermocouple junctions

Grounded junction

This junction is in direct contact (welded) to the outer sheath of the probe. Useful where the environment is corrosive and the response time requires is low ie fast acting probe. It gives fast response because the junction is more in contact wit the medium.

Exposed junction

Useful in areas where very fast response time is required. But the nature of gas is preferably non corrosive. It is so because since the junction is exposed it is fast but may corrode away easily. The junction is in direct contact with environment as it extends from a opening in the outer sheath. This opening is tightly sealed to prevent any moisture or the surrounding inside the sheath which may cause error.

Ungrounded junction -this type is used only in potentially electrically hazardous place like transformers etc. The junction completely insulated electrically from the outer sheath. The enclosed junction makes it suitable for it to used in corrosive environment.

What is response time?

It is how much time the sensor takes to reach 63.2% of the sudden change in temperature It is analogous to time constant in electrical circuit. So it has been derived that the temperature rises in the junction takes place exponentially as a capacitor of circuit is charged. At about 5 time constant the temperature of junction is equal to the actual temperature value.

Response time depends on the exposure of junction with the medium and the probe diameter. Smaller the diameter and more expose the junction lesser is the response exposed junction will have least response time

Errors in thermocouples

The following type of error may creep into thermocouple temperature measurement which may add up and affect overall accuracy.

Wire error: Thermocouple wire may not be uniform and homogeneous in its material .It may contain some impurity or other manufacturing defects. So all the thermocouple of same type may not show the reading.nIn this respect type T are considered most accurate with maximum 1.0 °C. error over the range -65 to 130 °C .

Reference junction error: This error is produced to faltering cold junction temperature due to faulty heating or cooling device at junction at cold junction compensation box.

Voltage measurement error: the measuring device which measure voltage and convert it to other form like a transmitter may be faulty and inducing errors.

Linearization error: For all the range of temperature for a particular type of thermocouple the relation between emf and (milllivolts) and temperature is not linear. So depending on the method or formula used to convert the millivolt to temperature the errors are in temperature is affected.

These errors are errors of a newly bought thermocouple. In long term emf drifts and leads to decalibration.

Thermocouple drift and decalibration

When thermocouple is placed in the high temperature region for considerable long time we cannot be sure of the reading of the temperature shown by it.This is because the emf produced by the TC can change over time even though it is at same temperature.This change in emf is called thermocouple drift.

Causes This change is due to change in chemical and metallurgical properties of metal of thermo elements at its surface or at volume or both. It result in change in seebeck coefficient in the some or entire regions of the thermo elements.

At surface following may occur

  • Oxidation of surface material mainly if the thermocouple wires are not protected by sheath or where open wire configuration is used.
  • Corrosion or depletion because of the gas or chemical around the thermo elements.
  • Chemical reaction with the insulator or sheath.

Inside of the thermocouple ie in its bulk changes may occur because

  • The metal of the thermo element may change is metallic phase may undergo allotropic change or diffusion of foriegn material.
  • Metal can undergo grain growth.
  • Continuous stress may cause the internal lattice to undergo deformation and develop voids etc.
  • Ordering transformation which is change in order or symmetry to disorder of the lattice when heated.

Following things are to be noted about thermal drift

It is not 100 % avoidable.

Drift is not caused if seebeck constant changes near the hot end of the thermoelement.

Drift s mainly caused if the thermo elements in between the thermocouple wire undergo change in seebeck constant.

This is because the temperature profile that at hot and cold end region of Tc the temperature in uniform.So any

No effect of change in seebeck coefficient. But at the middle region if seebeck coefficient changes drift may occur.


To ensure reliable and stable operation during its life time enclosure such as sheath thermo wells or protection tubes are used. But some of the noble metal thermocouple are more susceptible to contamination and may cause drift.


A thermocouple drift is irreversible. While after the drift you can change the probe but the detection of drift is important because a faulty reading can make process work incorrectly causing faulty operation of the process.

Sometimes temperature may go higher than the safer limit and may ultimately burn the thermocouple. This may also be caused when the drift is low and thus forcing the controller to raise the temperature further. This may cause halting in process causing loss to business.

For detecting thermocouple drift redundancy of reading can be used. This can also reduce human error in reading. Some controllers like honeywell uses loop resistance method to detect the drift. A drifted thermocouple will have higher resistance then the normal.

Periodic checking of temperature at installation can be done.

How thermocouple calibration is done

Thermocouples calibration is not the same as other instruments.

In fact when the term calibration with respect to thermocouple is used in laboratory it basically implies the validation of the thermocouple to produce required voltage which should match with values in TC emf chart.

It is done by comparison of the two curve the ideal and the plotted.


1.)Put thermocouple in a thermal bath at different temperature

2.)Measure thermal emf produced.

3.) Plot that emf with the temperature on X axis. Subtract emf equivalent of ambient temperature from the emf measured.

4.)Find the new equation for the curve obtained .The curve will be approximately linear. If higher accuracy is required find the coefficients of the higher powers.

If it does not matches or show some deviation sometimes the controller or display device which reads local temperature like thermometer, controller, data acquisition system etc is programed again to match that voltage to the actual temperature. The device does that by readjusting its voltage equation.

So in effect it is calibration of the thermocouple instruments like thermometer, controller, data acquisition etc

For temperature bath

We use Standard temperature source large enough so that the thermocouple can be inserted into it like ice bath. We can use the boiling and or freezing point of a series of pure solvents as those temperatures are well known at STP. Use an accurate thermometer to note down temperature.

Another such heat source is thermocouple calibration furnace. They have fast heating time. Accurate temperature display of about+-0.5decC. Also they can be used to calibrate multiple thermocouples at the same time.

Ok but what does a calibrator does.

It is a thermocouple meter plus simulator.

It is an instrument which reads temperature when TC wires is connected to its input and the calibrator is set to correct TC type.

Also it can simulate and reproduce ideal thermocouple sensor millivolts at its output when set to a temperature and type.


1.)To check that the instrument is reading correct temperature .If not the instrument is adjusted to read correct temperature.

2.) To compare the value read by TC under test and actual temperature reading eliminating the use of charts.

How to read the chart

It consist of rows of values showing millivolt.

The reference junction(cold junction) is Zero degree C for all data.

Each row consist of eleven values

Voltage value is for temperature corresponding to the row containing that voltage value plus the temperature corresponding to column containing that voltage value.


Generally thermocouple probe is enough to sense the temperature of the environment. Working condition in plants etc however is not so favorable for probes and they can be easily damaged For example places like high pressure steam, Flowing fluid etc can easily corrode away the probe Also it is required that the process is not disturbed when we insert a probe through a hole .

So insertion must be airtight. For this reason a thermowell is used. They provide protection from corrosion and are also useful for easy replacement of probe without opening up the process. For this reason they are installed airtight into the system.

They are of 3 types based on installation method.

1.) Welded 2.)Flanged 3.) Threaded

You can easily identify them by picture .

While selecting a thermowell you should watch out

1.)Length Thermocouple are tip sensing unlike rtd which are stem sensing. Therefore length is important to consider because while using thermocouple probe the tip of the probe should be touching the well bottom otherwise it will increase the time delay in measurement which in fact is unavoidable because of the insertion of thermowell but it should be minimized to reduce errors.

There are two types of length stated manufacturer.

Insertion length. or “U”length This is the length of well in the process of measurement. A properly installed element: in liquid, the element should be immersed up to point where it is most sensitive plus one inch. In air or gas, the element should be immersed up to point where it is most sensitive length plus three inches.

Extension length This length is called “T” length and is the extending length which is to extend thermowell and probe through wall or insulation of material. Between two length is the connection mechanism which is flanged threaded or welded.

Bore size used is greater then the size of probe so that more that one probe can be inserted.


They are of 3 types based on installation method.

1.)Welded This connection can be used when the process is not corrosive and routine removal is not required because welding frequently is not economical and is time consuming. This technique is suitable for high temperature & pressure application. As welding make thermowell quite airtight.

2.)Flanged Appropriate for large pipe diameter. Preferable if there is a need for more frequent well replacement such as high corrosion rates. So flanged connection is economical and easy to reinstall. Such a technique is more for high-pressure application.

2.) Threaded suitable for smaller diameter well. Threaded well are easy to install when diameter of well is small., which are not likely to be changed frequently

For high corrosive environment flanged is used where frequent changing is for non corrosive environment and smaller diameter.

You van easily identify them by picture

Stepped Tapered or straight.

Stepped is used to increase time response. Reduced diameter causes easy thermal flow.

Tapered is in between strength (vibration resistance) and time response.

Tapered length are more resistant to vibration of fluid. Vibration is caused from a phenomenon called wake frequency. Actually fluid flowing around well forms a kind of turbulence and if the frequency of wake is equal to (something called the) natural frequency of well the well may vibrate with maximum amplitude and break of. So the natural frequency quoted as velocity rating of well supplied by the supplier should be higher that the fluid velocity .

So in places like high speed fluid like outlet of high power motor a tapered connection will be better to use.

Material according to the corrosiveness of the environment.

There are corrosion charts available from thermowell manufacturers that list the preferred material for different conditions.

Thermocouple installation

Here is detail about the the thermocouple accessories needed for complete installation of thermocouple at industries.

Compression fitting

These type of TC don’t have any perrmanent fittings at end. It is just a sheated probe with wire at other end. So to mount them compression fitting is supplied separately.

Fittings let you adjust the depth of your probe into a system for temperature readings. Use fittings for straight-shaft probes and metal tubing only. These are sort of plumbing instruments used to connect tubes carrying thermocouple probe or wire to comparatively larger length.

These fitting allows to vary the insertion depth of the probe. They are generally made of brass or copper ferrule of size equal to probe and nuts to tighten the ferrule to probe. Its main specifications are Diameter. Choose your fitting according to the diameter of probe its measurement is NPT(National pipe thread).

Compression do not require soldering, so they are comparatively quick and easy to use so disassembling or partial removal for maintenance is easy.

They work at higher pressures and with toxic gases.

Bayonet fitting

In these types of fittings extruder type TC are used which are generally used in plastic industries.
Another application is injection in molding machines or presses in rubber industry.

The thermocouple has a spring loaded adjustable depth bayonet cap and long lead protected with stainless steel flexible armor. This type of arrangement is used because the length can has to readjusted along extruders and the same thermocouple will serve the purpose.

Thermocouple Transmitters

The use of this transmitter is generally recommended when the cost of thermocouple wire and plc input card exceeds the cost of the transmitter and common wire. This transmitter receives the voltage from the thermocouple and converts it into a scalable 4-20 mA analog output.

Different type can be

4-20 ma transmitters

Wireless transmitters

Programmable transmitters Some transmitters are field programmable, while others have a specified range, and are programmed at the factory.

TC temperature transmitters are used to convert millivolt (mV) output of a thermocouple to a reliable 4-20 mA DC current signal. This way Noise, voltage and other effects are defeated.

Transmitters are available according to base metal type because each type represents different temperature range.

Various specifications are included like analog voltage, analog current, resistance, and temperature which tells what transmission method ex-0 – 10 VDC. Devices that receive analog current 4 – 20 mA or resistance like as 0 to 10 ohms.

Mounting styles are different for different type of TC Ex thermohead/thermowell , DIN rail cabinet or rack or on on computer boards

Connectors jaks and plugs

While using extension wires often they deferent pieces of wires need to be connected. So for that purpose jacks and plugs are available. Connect TC wire or temperature sensor instrumentation with a temperature controller or process control HMI automation panel. Specifications for thermocouple connectors include

Contact material

Contact plating and

Wire size

For each type or thermocouple, the appropriate connector is attached to the thermocouple terminals.

Thermocouple connector plug or jack with ANSI color code are

Type K Yellow

Type J Black

Type T Blue

Type E Purple

Type N Orange

Type R/S Green

Type C Red

Connection are of two main types contact and crimp.

Contact-type devices have

a)Pins or plugs-designated as male connectors

b)sockets or receptacles- termed female

Crimp connectors is the physical compression (deformation) of a contact around a conductor to form an electrical and mechanical connection. Some thermocouple connectors feature quick wiring caps that allow the user to insert wires into the caps and then tighten the screws.

General Home appliances which uses tcs

Gas space heaters,Room heaters,Boilers

These type of appliances uses screw in, clamp or push in pilot burners. Choose the required model from the available probes but refer your manual for replacement and model type before making a purchase.

Patio heaters

These are different type of space heaters which require a specially made probes to fit in the stove.

Gas/electric oven or stove used in household cooking

They are located under the burner. You can locate it after opening the lower panels given in ovens. Most modern oven come with electronic temperature control. They are required to cook your food at required temperature So a thermostat is used to control the temperature. Their design may be different depending upon the company or model of oven. Ovens or stoves have special type of probe which is thin and long. They are connected with a thermostat which is responsible for the controlling action. Complete set of probe and thermostat are available.

Pellet stove

These type of stove uses pellet or wood pieces for lighting .Another tcs are used for its temperature control.

For pyrometer or kilns.

These types have high temperature applications.

For exhaust gas temperature monitors

Generally used to monitor the temperature the exhaust gas of automobile or internal combustion engine so that driver have an indication of air-fuel ratio which should not be higher than required. If it is so then the exhaust temperature will be higher then normal.

For refrigerators (Lagering and brewing)

Generally to replace the tc of your refrigerator you need the model number and company of the fridge. But many times you need to control the temperature of your freezer for certain application like brewer making wine making etc.For that certain general purpose probes with thermostat are available.

Surface tc probes

These types are used to measure the surface temperature of hot plates griddles, central heating radiators etc.They are also helpful in plumbing applications like measuring the temperature of pipes, radiators, boilers etc to maintain an efficient heating system.

For meat (Food processing/catering)

Your food items may require to measure its temperature for culinary purpose. Correct temperature improves its taste and prevent from damage.


Types of thermocouples

Thermocouples are categorized based on their use, sensitivity and temperature range. They can be easily identified by using the color chart.

Type K (Chromel / Alumel)

Sensitivity -41 µV/°C.

Temperature range –270 to 1372°C.

Use: General purpose use like process plants etc. It is oldest and therefore most commonly used. Its probes are of all varieties and have its temperature range is quite wide making it applicable in relatively vast processes. Its can readily be used in oxidizing or inert environment. However in reducing or vacuum it can deteriorate. Nickel part of the probe is magnetic so its show abrupt variation in emf above temperature around 220.

Type E (Chromel / Constantan)

Sensitivity (68 µV/°C) Highest sensitivity in terms of EMF /°C or °F of any of the thermocouples

Overall range –270 to 1000°C useful range 95-900 degrees C

It is mainly used for cryogenics or very low temperature measurement .Another advantage is Its none of the wires are magnetic. Suitable in oxidizing environment which are clean and not partially oxidizing or frequent change in environment from oxidizing to reducing.

Type J (Iron / Constantan)
Useful range (-45 to +760 °C)

Use: Equipment that can not accept ‘modern’ is magnetic so above curie temperature around 750 it can loose calibration. Reducing, Vacuum, Inert environment .It can detoriate at high temperature at high temperature in oxidizing or sulphurous environment below zero temperature application is also not suitable because of iron conductor may rust or form embritllement. So it is used upto 450 °C.

Type N (Nicrosil / Nisil)

650 -1260 degrees C –270 to 1300°C

Use: It is stable as it does not show abrupt emf change like type k. Also at high temperature it does not oxidizes. was made as a better replacement of type K. Type B s or R are TC are also stable type of thermocouple but their sensitivity is not so good at low temperature so the are mostly used for high temperature. Also N type is much cheaper.

Type R/S/B (Platinum type thermocouple)

These are noble metal thermocouple and one of the most stable types. But they are best applicable at high temperature because of the flat or constant emf response at temperature below 40-50°C Doe snot oxidizes in oxidizing condition like hot air. It is not enclosed in metal tubes because of high susceptibility to contamination ie diffusion of unwanted material etc.

They are mainly used in glass, semiconductor or steel industries to monitor the temperature of arch of this melting chamber of furnace where glass or steel is melted. They are generally enclosed in ceramic tube.

R (Platinum / Rhodium)
Overall range –50 to 1768°C.Useful range 870-1450 degrees C

S (Platinum / Rhodium)

Overall range –50 to 1768°C Useful range 980-1450 degrees C

sensitivity (10 µV/°C)

They are particularly used as standard for calibrating in melting point of gold.

B (Platinum / Rhodium)

Overall range 0 to 1820°C.Useful range1370-1700 degrees C (approx 10 µV/°C)

Type T (copper-constanan)

Overall range –270 to 400°C.Useful Range 200-350 degrees C.

Sensitivity 43 µV/°C.

They are good at low temperature so cryogenics very low temperature) application is its standard characteristics. They are Particularly useful where long presence of moisture in unavoidable such as food industries. Can be used in all types of environment inert, oxidizing or reducing provided they are mild and not extreme.

Type C tungsten 5% rhenium – tungsten 26% rhenium)

Overall range 0 to 2320°C.Useful range 1650-2315 degrees C

Well-suited for vacuum furnaces at extremely high temperatures. Not useful in presence of oxygen above 250 °C. They are used vehicle for space, nuclear reactor core, heating in industrial process etc. Tungsten is combustible at very high temperature so cannot be used in oxidizing environment. They are used in inert or hydrogen environment. Also in rigorous process of heating and cooling may cause embrittlement which then may cause breakage of wire due to vibration. This limits it to be used in all type of industrial heating.

Type M nickel alloy for each wire

0-1287 degrees C

Use: These thermocouples are used in vacuum furnaces for the same reasons as with type C.

This chart shows the various color codes for identifying the type of wire and its polarity based on the type of wire. These color codes are different in different countries and Also different for different types of thermocouples. You can identify the type of thermocouple by noticing the insulation color and the color used for different polarities wire.



Thermocouple manufacturers

Omega All range and types of Tc and other sensors. Complete range of instruments for industrial instrumentation.

KIMO instruments

Conac technologies Temperature sensors and compression seal fittings solution.

ABB TC and TC transmitters.

Danfoss Sensors valves Heating and refrigeration control of appliances at home. Sensors switches and instrument for Industrial automation.

Endress hauser

Fluke Handheld instruments loggers, Calibrator, Thermometer, Surface Tc probe and local reading instruments.

Fluke calibration

Watlow Electric heaters and Temperature sensors and temperature controllers

Agilent technologies TC pressure or vacuum gauge. Industrial automation and lab service.

Parker Instrumentation
Calex electronics limited

United electrics controls

Gefran Industrial automation, controllers ,inverter for drives and sensors(temperature, pressure, position, force transducers(load cell) etc)

Thermal detection Temperature sensors for process and manufacturing industries.(Pharmaceuticals temperature probe, industrial straight TC, fitting.

Madison level pressure and temperature sensor(Tc, RTD, switch, thermistors) manufacturing


Marsh bellofram

Lab facility Complete range of instruments for TC and TC accessories. Connectors, cables, sensors, transmitters, fittings etc
bocon Temperature sensors. Limited variety of TC designed
Ust sensor industrial sensors(temperature, pressure etc)
West control solution
Tecpel Handheld TC for multimeters
H.heinz meb wider stande gmbh
Phoenux Tm gmbx
digitron Haldheld reading and data logging
Hayashi denko
Author grillo
Peak sensors
CMR Sensors for diesel and gas engines. Bearing temperature, exhaust gas temperature etc.
B+B Temp, pressure, humidity sensors
Rossel mestechnik Temp sensors for various industries.
Temsens instruments TC and other temperature sensors
Desin instruments
Pixsys Bayonate type TCs
Murphy Stainless steel straight TCs
Athena All range of TC design(straight, wires, extruders etc)
EDand D
Ihne and tesch
Fischer messtecnik Straight TC for process control and Tc transmitters.
Turk hillinger
Lm therm
Pico technology TC with handle or plug type or expose wire with connectors for use with data loggers at local reading
Hanna instruments
Engineer Cy
Rototherm Mineral insulated straight Tc with assemblies.
Nor cal products
Hoover dam technologies
LAPP group
teledyne technologies
acim jouanin
Nuova fima
fast heat
Suchy messtechnik
Alpha wire

Also see- 



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Best South Park Episodes Season 1 to 18

Some facts about South Park. It is late night animated Tv MA(mature audience) comedy addressing wide range of topics which includes current local or world events, social issues, technology, religion or politics of both sides of spectrum, left or right.


Four ten years boys are the main characters in the show.Kyle,Stan, Kenny and Eric. Of course all different from each other. Matt stone and Trey parker are creators of this most swearing animated series . On its launch people said it to be a show with bad animation and fart jokes.

Terrance and phillip show was inspired by this comment. Its fast computer animation makes it possible for creators to theme it on current events. It usually takes a week to do so. There is often an alien hidden in the episodes. Most of which leaves people with some catchy phrase like oh my god they killed Kenny or Timmay or of course Mr Mackey- Drugs are bad mkay.

Overall the series departs from the real experience to express these events in a funny way. One can watch its full episodes at the official site of south park.

Among main characters of the series Eric Cartman and Kyle Broflovski are striking. This is apart from the array of other main characters which i have left out including the other two friends. In particular the show stands out as a “series of affects” in society.

Many people mostly celebrities described in the series are hilarious. In addition, in some instances the audience is drawn into the new adventures and so it have even managed to impress those who does not like animation. Because of the shows long term broadcast the life long fans of the show are increasing every day. Four kids in the beginning might had you wondering if I would recommend the events in show as definitely worth watching.

Social and Political Satire

Chinpokomon (Ep 3-11)
In this episode of South Park, the boys fall into the new Chinpokomon fad sweeping through America. The fad is a thinly veiled poke at the Pokemon fad of the late Nineties.

Child Abduction is not Funny (Ep 6-11)
The parents of the town grow increasingly concerned about their children being abducted, spurred on by news reports. This leads to the children being banished from town and joining a group of Mongolians.

All About Mormons (Ep 7-12)
Stan makes friends with the new Mormon boy at school and Randy tries to convert his family to Mormonism. This episode explores the history and practice of Mormonism in modern life.

Butt Out (Ep 7-13)
When the boys are caught smoking, Rob Reiner and a group of anti-tobacco lobbyist flood South Park. Reiner and his team then goes to very extreme lengths to ban smoking indoors.

Douche and Turd (Ep 8-8)
This episode lampoons everything from PETA, political campaigns and elections, and Puff Daddy’s “Vote Or Die” ad campaign. Stan learns the lesson that his choice is always between a douche and a turd in elections.

Something Wall-Mart This Way Comes (Ep 8-9)
A brand new Wall-Mart opens up in South Park and infections the population with its low prices. This results in shopping addiction in Randy and small businesses closing their doors.

Trapped in the Closet (Ep 9-12)
This Emmy Award nominated episode is a scathing critique of the religion of Scientology. The episode mocks the beliefs of the religion and claims it is just a institute interested in money.

Black Friday trilogy (Eps 17-7 to 17-9)
In this series of episodes, nothing is safe. They mock everything like Game of Thrones, the Black Friday craze in America, George R. R. Martin, and video game console wars.

Rainforest Shmainforest (Ep 3-1)
The boys go on a school trip to Costa Rica to perform a rain forest support concert. While taking a tour in the rain forest, they learn of all the dangers in the forest.

Timmy 2000 (Ep 4-3)
There is a vast over diagnosis of Attention Deficient Disorder among the school children in South Park Elementary. This episode is also the introduction of the fan favorite character of Timmy.

Stan’s Best

My Future Self N’ Me (Ep 6-16)
Stan sets out to solve the mystery of who is behind his future self appearing in his time, not believing that he will grow up to be an unemployed drug addict.

Woodland Critter Christmas (Ep 8-14)
This episode is an example of one of Stan’s best character traits: playing the resistant straight man. He’s roped into helping a group of Satan worshiping animals he finds in the woods.

Free Willzyx (Ep 9-13)
Stan recruits the other boys to help him free a talking whale named Willzyx escape from the aquarium and return to his home on the moon, not knowing the whale’s talking was a prank.

Guitar Queer-o (Ep 11-13)
When Stan gets his big break playing Guitar Hero, his pursuit of fame causes a rift in his and Kyle’s friendship. Also a great Randy Episode as he plays Heroine Hero.

Whale Whores (Ep 13-11)
Mocking the show Whale Wars as Stan joins the crew and starts performing acts of eco-terrorism in under to protect whales and dolphins from the Japanese who hold a grudge with them after World War Two.

Kyle”s Best

The List (Ep 11-14)
The girls at South Park Elementary make a list ranking the boys on attractiveness. Kyle’s confidence is shaken upon learning he appears so low on the list and spirals into a depression.

Taming Strange (Ep 17-5)
Kyle must try to get Ike back to his normal self after Ike is accidentally given steroids and hits puberty much earlier than expected. This leads Ike only to be interested in “strange.”

Mr. Hankey, the Christmas Poo (Ep 1-9)
This episode explores Kyle’s Judaism and the isolation he feels around Christmas time due to it. His friends also mock him for his belief in the fabled Mr. Hankey, the Christmas Poo.

Ike’s Wee Wee (Ep 2-4)
Kyle panics as Ike’s bris draws closer, thinking the ceremony will result in Ike getting his penis cut off. Kyle also discovers and deals with the fact that Ike was adopted.

The Entity (Ep 5-11)
Kyle’s cousin Kyle comes to town for a visit, and Kyle tries everything to prevent Cartman from making fun of his cousin’s stereotypical Jewish mannerisms. Kyle also tries to send his cousin away.

Cartman’s Best

Scott Tenorman Must Die (Ep 5-5)
Cartman seeks revenge when he is tricked by an older boy into purchasing his pubic hair. A shocking reveal occurs at Cartman’s Chili Con Carnival when he makes the boy eat his own parents in chili.

Fat Butt and Pancake Head (Ep 7-5)
In this episode, Cartman imitates Jennifer Lopez by drawing a face on his hand. Things escalate as the real Lopez tries to attack Cartman and his hand begins a romantic relation with Ben Affleck.

Christian Rock Hard (Ep 7-9)
When the boys’ band breaks up, they make a bet to see who can make the first platinum album. Cartman then makes a Christian rock band, thinking it will sale the most albums.

Chickenlover (Ep 2-3)
Cartman is temporarialy put on the South Park police squad while Officer Barbardy learns to read. Cartman abuses his new found power and shouts his famous line: “Respect my authoritah!”

Casa Bonita (Ep 7-11)
This episode shows the insane lengths Cartman will go to get what his wants. By locking Butters in a bomb shelter for days, Cartman hopes to get an invitation to Kyle’s birthday party at Casa Bonita.

Kenny’s Best (Ep 9-4)

Best Friend’s Forever
When Kenny gets the high score in a PSP game, God kills him. He does this so Kenny can use the golden PSP to control Heaven’s army to wage war against the army from Hell.

Major Boobage (Ep 12-3)
A new drug craze called “cheesing” is raging through South Park. Kenny gets hooked on the drug when he is transported a heavy metal, boob-filled world every time he gets high.

Coon vs. Coon and Friends (Ep 14-13)
The last episode of the Coon and Cthulhu trilogy, Cartman seeks revenge on Kenny and the Coon and Friends. This episode finally reveals the secret of Kenny’s many deaths and revivals.

The Ring (Ep 13-1)
Kenny is desperate to take his new girlfriend to a Jonas Brother concert after hearing rumors that the band makes girls want to perform sexual acts with their boyfriends.

Chickenpox (Ep 2-10)
The boys’ parents send them to Kenny’s house for a sleep over in an attempt to give the boys chickenpox. This episode is the first to fully explore the depths of the poverty that Kenny lives in.

Butters’ Best

Butter’s Very Own Episode (Ep 5-14)
The first episode centered around Butters, he investigates his father’s night time activities. He then reports to his mom of his father’s homosexual acts at adult movie theaters and bath houses.

Professor Chaos (Ep 6-6)
Butters has finally had enough of being bullied and creates his evil alter ego: Professor Chaos. In this episode, Butters uses his new identity to try to spread chaos and fear throughout the world.

AWESOM-O (Ep 8-5)
Butters recieves a mysterious package from Japan and finds the AWESOM-O 4000, a friendship robot, inside. Unknown to Butters, however, the robot is actually Cartman trying to pull a prank on him.

Marjorine (Ep 9-9)
The boys are terrified to learn that the girls at South Park Elementary has created a device that can predict the future. In order to attain it, the boys use Butters dressed as a girl to infiltrate a slumber party.

Butters’ Bottom Bitch (Ep 13-9)
When Butters pays a girl on the playground for his first kiss, he realizes that he can help the girl by organizing her kissing appointments and taking a cut of her profits.

Randy’s Best

Bloody Mary (Ep 9-14)
Randy is debilitated when he suffers from the disease of alcoholism. When he has almost lost hope, he decided his only chance of curing himself is the statue of Mary who bleeds out of her ass.

Two Days Before the Day After Tomorrow (Ep 9-8)
Global warming has struck South Park. When Randy finds Stan missing from the emergency shelter, he and a few other men take it upon themselves to brave the global warming devastated outside world in order to save him.

Something You Can Do With You Finger (Ep 4-8)
Randy is horrified when he finds out Stan and the other boys have created a boy band named Finger Bang. He reveals to Stan his history as a member of a short lived boy band.

The Losing Edge (Ep 9-5)
The boys spend all summer trying to lose their little league baseball games so they can stop playing the game. Randy spends all summer fighting other members of the crowd at the boys’s games.

Make Love, Not Warcraft (Ep 10-8)
When a player on World of Warcraft is illegally killing other players, Randy is the only hope of delivering a power weapon to the boys who are waging a war with the player.

Top ten episodes of south park
Most Controversial

1. Cartoon Wars – Mohammad is mocked once again, leaving Muslims up in arms over the episode.

2. 200 – This episodes tries to tackle censorship and the importance of free speech.

3. Not Without My Anus – This gem angered viewers by featuring Saddam Hussein, Celine Dion, and Terrance and Philip. It was originally meant to be the answer to who Eric Cartman’s father was in the previous season, which ended on a cliffhanger.

4. Pinewood Derby – Mexico’s flag is inappropriately used, which left many viewers upset.

5. Douche and Turd – This episode mocked the 2004 elections with a giant douche and turd sandwich, stating that there’s no real difference between the two as Stan refuses to vote.

6. 201 – In this episode, all appearances of Mohammad were blacked out by the network and is said to be more shocking than the actual character.

7. Tonsil Trouble – Cartman gets AIDS and attempts to give it to Kyle out of revenge.

8. Jared Has Aides – Butters is seen being abused by his parents, which was disturbing to most viewers.

9. Cripple Fight – This episode’s title speaks for itself and involves two disabled students getting into a fight at school.

10. Proper Condom Use – This episode features plenty of sex ed scenes but combine disturbing humor into the storyline.

Most Offensive

1. Super Best Friends – a coalition of religious figures is formed, which include Jesus, Joseph Smith, Buddha, and a Muslim prophet known as Muhammad. Muhammad was offensive to Muslims viewers in this episode due to how he was depicted.

2. 201 – In this episode, all appearances of Mohammad were blacked out by the network which is said to be more shocking than the actual character.

3. With Apologies to Jesse Jackson – This episode in season 11 addresses the controversy involved after Michael Richards used the N-word.

4. Bloody Mary – A statue of the virgin Mary is covered with blood, which offends plenty of Catholics.

5. Crack Baby Athletic Association – In season 15, the NCAA is bluntly mocked.

6. The China Probrem – Cartman and Butters both decide to dress up as Chinese people before the act of rape is depicted.

7. Not Without My Anus – This gem angered viewers by featuring Saddam Hussein, Celine Dion, and Terrance and Philip. It was originally meant to be the answer to who Eric Cartman’s father was in the previous season and was considered to be the middle finger to the audience.

8. Jared Has Aides – Butters is seen being abused by his parents, which was disturbing to most viewers.

9. Cripple Fight – This episode’s title speaks for itself and involves two disabled students getting into a fight.

10. Trapped in the Closet – Both Tom Cruise and Scientology are bluntly mocked.

Most Dark

1. Hell on Earth – Satan decides to throw a sweet 16 party in Hell, which Steve Irwin attends and is seen with a stingray on his chest.

2. Death – Stan’s grandfather is described as suicidal in this episode and begins to beg his grandson to murder him.

3. The Return of Chef – After leaving for a period of time, Chef returns and is clearly brainwashed by a cult that is hinted to be Scientology.

4. Woodland critters- Cartman’s imagined evil animals engage in all sorts of satanic rituals.

5. Scott Tenorman Must Die – Cartman looks to target an eighth grader after purchasing his pubes fails to impress Cartman’s friends.

6. Bloody Mary – A statue of the virgin Mary is covered with blood, which offends plenty of Catholics.

7. World War Zimmerman – Both World War Z and George Zimmerman are mocked during this story line.

8. Red Sleigh Down – Santa Clause is the butt of the joke here and looks more like a homeless drunkard.

9. The Missing Episode – This one left viewers wondering why the show didn’t meet its deadline.

10. Butters very own episode – Butters mother goes crazy and tries to kill him by drowning him into a lake.

My favorite quotes and scenes- You are gonna have a bad time What seems to be the officer problem…:) What ever I do what I want.. Miss teacher bangs a boy nice.. The super best friends Krishna buddha moses and s*men..Its seaman. 🙂 Do you wanna get high.. Screw you guys i am going home. Lew lew lew.. Hello Mr click click derk. Ok children as i was saying HareKrishnas are totally gay. This is Abc news or News 27 whatever ever f*@k you. Boy sure its taking a long time… (Butters and general disarray tries to flood the world with tap water.)

Also see-

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Best washing machine in India

Best shopping sites in India-Poly Tickle VLSI


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Best protein powders

Finding the best protein powder depends on what your goals are. In general, people drink shakes for two, sometimes conflicting reasons:

1. Gain muscle (good weight gain).
2. Lose fat (good weight loss).

In an ideal world, everyone could gain plenty of muscle and lose tons of fat at the same time. In the real world, however, it’s important to concentrate on either one or the other goal. (Fitness models and professional bodybuilders, whose livelihood depends on how they look, follow a gaining-muscle cycle then a losing-fat cycle before contests.)

So concentrate on finding the most effective protein powder for ONE of these goals. We’ve made an interactive guide to help you compare the different types. If you’re a bodybuilding stud (or studette), you could read its contents and know exactly what to look for.

Dairy-based protein powder, including whey and casein, are popular due the high levels of protein they both contain.

Unfortunately, whey and casein powders are indigestible for some users, and people may experience abdominal discomfort after drinking any dairy products. A person could be allergic to some unknown products in the dairy-based protein powder or they may be lactose intolerant.

While the product is generally safe and effective when used according to the label, there are indeed side effects of whey protein for some users, though whether these qualify as dangerous or not is up to the individual.

And remember, these are the most common side effects because even authorities like WebMD has stated protein powder is generally safe for healthy adults.


• a bloated feeling
• abdominal cramps
• flatulence
• headaches
• nausea
• diarrhea
• thirst
• increased bowel movements
• cramps
• fatique


1. First, make sure you’re not lactose-intolerant. If your stomach feels like it’s refighting the Battle of Midway after ingesting protein powder, chances are you’re lactose intolerant.

Lactose-intolerance discomfort is the most common side effect of whey protein. The substance is sourced from milk and is comprised of about 5% to 6% of lactose. People who are lactose intolerant are incapable of absorbing lactose, which is sugar from milk.

Certain ethnic groups are more lactose intolerant than others. If you belong to the most affected groups, well, chances are you’re lactose intolerant and could feel the side effects of whey protein.

Percentage of lactose intolerant populations by ethnic group:

Whites – 15%
Hispanics – 50%
Blacks – 75%
Asians – 90+%
Native Americans – 90+%

There are also some overlaps among groups. For example, American Jews, while predominantly white, have a 60% lactose-intolerance rate.

But just because you belong to the most affected groups doesn’t mean you are lactose intolerant. Listen to (or, more likely, feel) your stomach, and you’ll pretty much figure it out.

Here are some remedies if you’re sure you’re lactose intolerant:

Certain pills are offered to minimize these side effects of lactose intolerance. Trustworthy brands include Lactaid Fast Act pills and Schiff Digestive Advantage capsules.

If pills don’t work and the side effects persist, you just have to go with another, non-milk protein powder.

These would provide you with the proper protein without the discomfort that lactose-intolerant users experience from whey protein.

2. The second remedy for protein-powder discomfort is simply exercise! This goes without saying, but if you ingest a lot of protein, whether from powder or any other form and you’re not working out, your body will not handle it well.

Proper exercise includes a cardio program, a weight-training program, and a stretching program, as outlined in most fitness books.

3. Drink plenty of water to offset all the protein your body is taking in. Bodybuilders, who consume the most protein of just about any athlete, are advised to drink at least 1 gallon of water a day.

And I say “at least.” If you’re serious about working out, you should drink that much too. Water helps flush out improper and impure substances in your body, and it helps with a lot more than just eating protein powder.

4. Don’t overly consume protein powder. The US government recommends most adults eat around 56 grams of protein a day, and while athletes almost always eat more, even the most hardcore bodybuilders eat no more than 1.5 grams of protein per pound of bodyweight.

Don’t forget: that’s 1.5 grams of protein per bodyweight pound, not 1.5 grams of protein powder per pound. So all your other protein sources plus protein powder combined should not be more than 1.5 grams per pound of bodyweight. And you should be eating other protein sources, which brings us to the next remedy . .

5. Eat a balanced diet. Drink your protein shakes but don’t use protein powder as your only source of protein; it’s a supplement to real protein foods you should eat and enjoy—steaks, chicken, fish, eggs, etc. Supplement those sources of protein with fresh vegetables and fruits and complex carbs like brown rice and whole-wheat pasta.


It’s not absolutely necessary for men and for women to drink protein shakes to live a healthy lifestyle. However, if you want to grow muscle/lose fat, you should be eating small meals.

What happens if you’re only eating a small breakfast, a small lunch, and a small dinner? That’s right—you get hungry between meals and reach for that bag of chips or, worse, pig out at the next meal. Of course, you can always cook a lot of small meals, but who has the time?

Enter protein powders. You drink them with water or mix them with milk or a sports drink, and have them between meals and/or before bedtime. 3 meals + 2 or 3 shakes a day supply your muscles with proper nutrients all day and night without the added fat and cholesterol of potentially unhealthy food.


While anything animal-based can be made into a powder, the most common and the top type of protein powder are made of either whey or casein, both of which come from milk. We could go into a 100-page analysis of both, but for practical purposes all you need to really know are a few simple facts.

Whey gets absorbed quickly into your bloodstream so it’s ideal after a workout or upon waking up in the morning or generally throughout the day. Casein, on the other hand, gets absorbed slowly so it’s ideal to take it before bedtime so your body will be replenished while you sleep.

A lot of people buy both whey and casein, but if you had to choose only one, we suggest you go with good quality whey. It’s cheaper, more practical, and, to most people, tastes better too. For general use, whey is probably the best protein powder source.

Since both of these sources come from milk, if you’re vegan, you might want to try a supplement that’s completely plant-based. The most popular ones are soy, rice, and pea. Soy is generally considered the most ideal vegan protein because it’s one of the few plant-based ones that’s complete—i.e., have all the necessary amino acids that animal-based ones (whey, casein, etc.) have.


Well, we assume you’re exercising with weights and some sort of cardio program (walking, running, etc.). If you aren’t, nothing below will really help you.

Also, it’s important to not only look at the price of the item but also how much it costs per serving or, even more importantly, how much it costs per protein gram. A $10 product that only provides 100 grams of protein is worse than a $100 product that provides 1500 grams.

Other people might follow a vegan lifestyle and want a plant-based protein powder. Others still might adhere to the paleo diet,which doesn’t allow for dairy proteins. Good news is there are many different dairy free protein powder supplements available.

(A quick note: All those trendy, scientific-sounding terms—““isolate BCAA matrix!”—that supplement companies throw out to trick you into thinking they have the best brand of protein powder are not included. Really, protein powders or supplements need not be so complicated. Don’t get scammed!)


What are the best protein shakes for increasing mass? Anything that’ll increase the number of calories you eat beyond what your body can burn. So as long as its fat content is low, any supplement that has the most calories (in the form of protein and carbohydrates) is excellent.

Optimum Nutrition Serious Mass

If you want to gain muscle fast, Optimum Nutrition Serious Mass (around $40) is the ticket. Each serving has 1250 calories and 50 grams of protein, which are way more than any other supplement we know of.

Fat is kept low at only 4 grams per serving and carbs are high at 253 grams, but if you’re only interested in muscle gain, those extra carb calories won’t hurt you.

The product’s only downside is its price per protein gram isn’t the lowest at 4 pennies per gram. But then again you’re getting a lot of carb calories too. This is why Serious Mass is one of the top protein shakes for weight gain.


CytoSport Cyto Gainer

CytoSport Cyto Gainer(around $42) is another good choice. Sure, you’re only getting 280 calories per serving, but that’s still twice as many calories as most supplements’ servings. Each serving will also provide you with 2 grams of fat, 38 grams of carbs, and 27 grams of protein.


Here, your goal is to lower your caloric intake so it falls below what your body is burning. How do you lower your calories? Obviously, you lower your fat intake as much as possible, but you also lower your carb intake while leaving your protein intake high. Bodybuilders and fitness models pretty much follow the same diet when losing weight—cut down on carbs and fat and keep protein intake high.

So, clearly, the best weight loss supplements would be ones that are high in protein but low in fat and carbs. Mix with water or nonfat milk (anything without carbs and fat), and you have the perfect protein for smoothies. These are what we’d recommend:

The Now Foods Whey (around $60) is excellent for weight loss because each serving only has 1 gram of fat and carbohydrates each, creating only 105 calories.

Where do these calories come from? You guessed it—25 grams of good quality protein! And the product’s reasonably priced at only 3 pennies per protein gram.

In fact, due to its cost and extremely low fat/carb and high protein content, Now Foods Whey might also be the best protein powder for people who already are at their preferred weight.

Optimum Nutrition Platinum Hydro Whey (around $60) has the same low fat content as the Now Foods, one more gram of carbohydrate (2 grams per serving instead of 1), but 5 more protein grams, making an impressive 30 grams of protein per serving. The cost stays cheap too at only 3 pennies per protein gram.


This one’s easy. Body Fortress Whey (around $30) provides you with two 2-pound tubs (that’s 4 pounds if you flunked 1st grade math) of high-end protein. What does this mean? It means you get 50 servings for that price, and each serving gives you 26 grams of protein, making it only 2 pennies per protein gram!

Its fat and carb content, while not super-low, is kept reasonable at 2 and 7 grams per serving. All in all, this Body Fortess product provides the cheapest but still great quality supplement and creates the number one protein shake for the budget-minded.


Optimum nutrition 100% Casein (around $30) is a casein product since it’s slow-acting so your body, while sleeping, would get its nourishment throughout the night. And since you’ll be sleeping right after taking this, you better hope for low fat and low carbs since you don’t want to look like a sumo wrestler when you wake up (sumo wrestlers do indeed sleep right after they eat!).

So each serving of the Optimum nutrition 100% Casein gives you only 1 gram fat and 4 gram carb and a terrific 24 grams of protein. All this and you’re still only paying a very reasonable 4 pennies per protein gram. Mix it with nonfat milk or water, this is probably the best value protein powder for smoothies if you only drink at night.


The same principle applies for vegans as non vegans. Eat a low-fat, high-carb, high-protein diet for weight gain; eat a low-fat, low-carb, high-protein diet for weight loss. Only difference is you’ll be drinking plant-based shakes instead of whey- or casein-based ones.

Below, we’ll give you recommendations on the best plant-based, dairy-free protein powders.


Rice protein is another great dairy free protein powder. It is derived from brown rice and is ideal for gluten-free protein drinks. Pea protein powders are also gluten free, dairy free, and are hypoallergenic, like rice protein powder.

PROS: Since both powders are non-allergenic, these products will not be as harsh on the digestive system. Your stomach might thank you.

CONS: Rice protein, however, is not a complete protein so another protein would have to pair with it in order to make it a whole food. Neither is pea protein. Which is why both rice and pea are often paired together to form a complete protein powder (i.e., one that has all the amino acids that meat- or dairy-based protein powders have).


Nutribiotic Organic Rice Protein

Price $20

Serving Per Container: 40 (15 gm each)

Protein per serving 12 gm

Fat 0 gm

Carb 2gm



Now Foods Pea Protein

Price Around $20

Serving per container 10 (33 gm each)

Protein per serving 24 gm

Fat 1 gm

Carb 2 gm



Hemp protein powder is probably the best plant-based protein on the market, and it is inexpensive.

PROS: Hemp is a gluten-free protein powder that can be absorbed into the blood stream quickly. It is also easy to digest since all of its digestive enzymes are in place.

CONS: Since hemp seed powder is not a complete protein, it should be combined with other plant-based proteins so that all amino acids are consumed. Those who suffer from an auto-immune disease may be sensitive to hemp protein powder and find that it causes their immune system to react.


Nutiva Organic Hemp Protein

Price Around $20

Serving per container 15 (30 gm each)

Protein per serving 15 gm

Fat 3 gm

Carb 8 gm


Soy protein can be made into plant-based, sugar-free protein shakes that are highly digestible.

PROS: Soy is a complete protein, carrying all of the amino acids that the body needs; it is also low in fat and has no cholesterol. If you’re not allergic to soy, it’s probably the most effective non-dairy AND VEGAN protein powder.

CONS: Although soy protein powder offers great benefits, it can cause the same allergies and reactions as some dairy protein powders. These allergy symptoms may include runny noses, bloating, and/or nausea.


Bob’s Red Mill Isolated Soy

Price Around $10

Serving per container 20 (20 gm each)

Protein per serving 17 gm

Fat 1 gm

Carb 0 gm

Bob’s Red Mill Isolated Soy is wonderful with 0 fat grams and 0 carbohydrate grams per serving. For vegan weight loss, this is the best protein for smoothies.

Best Egg Protein Powder:

The best egg-based protein powder one could find is Now Foods Egg White Protein. Just like its beef protein powder, it only contains 1 ingredient: egg-white powder. No salt, no sugar, no preservatives. And it’s even a bit more robust than the beef protein with 16 grams of protein per serving (for around $18 you get 27 servings).

Protein Powder for Kids

The adult daily intake of protein should equal 45-56 grams. For those active in sports and exercise, an increase is helpful. Strength training athletes require about 1.4 to 1.8 grams per kilogram (2.2lbs) of body weight per day. Endurance athletes need about 1.2 to 1.4 grams per kilogram (2.2lbs) of body weight per day.

Children under 14 do not require large quantities of protein as they grow so protein supplements for kids (preteens anyway) is not essential.

For pre-teens (under 14 years of age) taking too many protein supplements would be foolish. It’s unnecessary and maybe even harmful to have protein powder for children under 14.

Young kids should instead learn how to make their own balanced meals rather than simply reach for a protein shake to balance their nutrition. For instance, these nutritious foods already contain a healthy amount of protein. A four-ounce chicken breast has 36 grams. Four ounces of hamburger or 4 ounces of tuna both contain 28 grams. A six-ounce steak has a hefty 42 grams of protein. Whole, natural foods can certainly provide a pre-teen the correct protein amount.

But is protein powder healthy for older kids, namely for active teens over age 14 competing in sports? If a teenager asks, “Do I need protein powder,” what is the answer? Well, it’s absolutely okay—as long as the young person consumes it in moderation. See, the body cannot absorb large amounts of protein at one time, regardless of age. A lot more is not always a lot better and could deplete the body of precious minerals.

Still, many teenagers, especially ones who do a lot of weightlifting or do powerful sports like football, can turn to protein to enhance their workouts. A scoop of whey protein powder might be an intelligent choice as a supplement to an already good diet. It provides all the essential amino acids for healthy growth and development. But again, the key word is “supplement.” If a teenager is eating pizza and fries all day, protein supplements might not be a good idea; the first step is cleaning up his or her diet then supplementing.

So if a teenager’s diet is already pretty good, by all means, they can take protein powder.

Optimum Nutrition 100% Whey Gold Standard
is pretty much the world’s bestselling protein powder—and for good reason. While it’s not the cheapest at $30 for a 3-pound tub, that price also gives you 28 (32 gm each) servings and each one is a very respectable 24 grams of protein. This is the one I use myself, and it mixes easily and tastes rather good (for a supplement, at least) when mixed with milk or Gatorade or even water. It’s probably the best whey protein for kids over 14.

Now, if you’re a kid or if you’re a parent who doesn’t want to spend a lot, we recommend Body Fortress Whey. For around $30, you get 5 pounds tub. It will give you 50 servings of 26 protein grams, which is among the most economical protein supplements for children.

Does protein powder go bad?

Every protein powder brand has a different shelf life, but usually the supplement expires a year from when it was purchased or manufactured. For some, it can even last two to three years if it is stored in a secure and cool environment.

Although the powder can be safely consumed in the coming year or two, it does not always maintain its vitamins and nutrients, which can break down after many months of being stored.

The question “Does protein powder go bad?” should be changed to “How to maintain protein powder’s maximum freshness?” To ensure it lasts longer, keep the container sealed for as long as possible before using it.

How to Store Protein Powder

When storing protein powder, make sure it is properly sealed without any exposure to air or moisture. It is more susceptible to moisture due to its texture, so it’s important to keep it in a dry and cool environment like a pantry.

Like most dehydrated foods, protein powder does not spoil easily or quickly. To test the quality of the product, simply smell it and see if it’s lost its original scent. Expired protein powder often can smell like wood or the plastic it’s stored in.

The best way to determine if it’s still good is to check the protein powder expiration date. By law, sealed foods must have an expiration date to warn consumers before consumption. Many suppliers even sell expired protein powder that can be up to a year old that is still healthy to consume and contains plenty of nutrients and vitamins.

If you’re buying protein powder in a jar or tub with a twist seal, you already have the perfect container to keep it fresh for as long as you can. If you’re able, just buy enough protein powder so you can finish it within a few months (say, 6 or less months) to insure maximum freshness.

If you’re buying protein powder in bulk and it comes in a bag, it’s probably best for you to place it in an airtight container to maintain maximum freshness. After all, even if it doesn’t expire, its freshness and potency degenerate a bit with each stored month if it’s not in a sealed and dry place.

Depending on how much protein powder you have, you can buy a smaller protein shake container or a larger one.

Hope you’ve found your best protein powder. Now hit those weight!


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How to Get Rid of Fleas (DIY)

Wet summer up to scratch for leaping flea population

But it appears that for fleas, the wet, cool weather could not have been better.

Fleas come in thousands of varieties, but the one that affects Canadians the most is the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis. The cat flea prefers dogs, but cats are its second choice and humans will do in a pinch.

September is usually the peak time for fleas, or at least for flea complaints. Vacationers coming back from their annual spell at the cottage bring their dogs back to a house full of fleas that have not had a good meal in a couple of weeks.

They didn’t recognize they had a flea problem before, but when they get back, everybody gets clobbered – humans as well as dogs and cats. The hungry hordes are made up of fleas that were probably in one of the developmental stages when the host dog or cat left. A flea starts out as an egg, then goes through a larva and a pupa stage before becoming a full- blown pest.


During the developmental stages, fleas live on the ground outdoors and a carpet or the floor serves as their nursery indoors. Only after they reach the adult stage do they set out in search of a live host. Newly developed fleas can stay without a blood meal for a considerable period of time.

But once the host is there, the fleas waste no time in getting down to dinner. They will attack humans as well as animals, but once they’ve got enough blood meals, the things will settle down again to the dog and the cat.

Fleas are active outside as long as the temperature stays above 13 degrees. Below that, animals are unlikely to pick up fleas while roaming about.

If fleas have already moved indoors before the snow flies, they will live quite happily in any abode where the occasional blood meal is available.

Fortunately, fleas cannot fly. But they are tremendous leapers. Adult fleas are only about three millimetres long and they have been known to jump 20 centimetres high; their broad-jump record is about 33 centimetres.

So even houses without pets can become infested after fleas that have hitched rides on human ankles fall off and reproduce.

As parasites go, fleas are relatively harmless unless they are allowed to flourish for a long time.

But over the centuries, fleas have been responsible for millions of deaths as carriers of the bubonic plague. Rat fleas – not cat fleas – carried the Black Death that at its peak in the fourteenth century killed one in four people in Europe.

Ridding animals of fleas is relatively simple. There are flea collars, shampoos and powders available, all of which are effective. But a flea- free pet in a flea-riddled house will not remain unencumbered for long.

Professional pest control firms use a couple of chemicals to rout fleas. A non-residual pesticide called pyrethrin is sprayed in the air to kill adult fleas. Diazinon, an insecticide that remains lethal for weeks, is spread around baseboards to kill larva as they emerge from eggs.

There is nothing available that will kill eggs, however, so often the treatment must be repeated to kill larvae that hatch after the insecticide loses its punch.

A vacuum cleaner can also be effective in defending a house against fleas, particularly if a pesticide is sprayed into it first so that fleas sucked into the machine cannot just crawl out again when the power is turned off.

  • Use herbal flea dip

Consider making your own because it’s not a complicated process. Here is how you can do that. Add to just enough amount of water 2 cups of fresh rosemary leaves. Put the mixture into a pot and then boil for about 30-minutes before you strain. Do away with the leaves and add more water (should be warm). There you have it – your herbal flea dip – and you can slowly pour all of it on your pet. It’s advisable that you do this on a hot day because you won’t rinse or dry up your pet but leave it to air dry. As you know, that’s not healthy to your pet when the weather is cold.

At the time the dip dries on your pet, there would be no flea alive on that fur and your pet will be happy too.

  • Buy a flea comb

Every time you use any herbal dip on your pet, ensure that you use a comb designed to remove flea so that you get rid of any one of them that could have remain alive. Brush through with the comb until you’re convinced that the far is free from any flea.

  • Use citrus spray

I am not saying that you should go and by anything, but make it yourself at home. All you need is a lemon, water and a source of heat. Cut the lemon into small pieces and ad them to a pint of water and then boil. In that way, you’ll have made your spray. Don’t spray it immediately but leave it until tomorrow morning. Pour the liquid in a spray bottle and spray it in the invested areas. Don’t ignore the outdoor areas where your pet is fond of. On your pet’s fur, rub it gently. If you do this on a monthly basis, you’ll be able to get rid of all the fleas as well as avoid re-infestation.

The only disadvantage of using this spray is that it can cause stain on your pet’s fur. In addition, it can sometimes cause digestive discomfort in some pets.

  • Spray with white vinegar

This is how you can make a vinegar spray: Get a clean spray bottle, into it, add a quarter of distilled white vinegar, and fill the rest of the space ¾ with water. Because you’re going to use the spray to do cleaning, it’s advisable that you add soap for efficiency though that’s not compulsory.

Use the mixture to clean all the invested areas. If you like, you can just spray it throughout the house and you should do that once or twice a week in order to get rid of those small scrolling insects. That also ensures that your home is a no go zone for fleas and other pests.

  • Have pennyroyal around

If you plant this plant around your house, fleas will never even think of coming near. In case fleas already share your apartment with you, you’ve got to plant this because its oil is very powerful and will send them away. Even though it’s a long-term solution, it’s better because it offers a permanent solution, which many of us will go for.

However, if you have pets that love plants, don’t go for this option because it’s not good for the health of any pet too. Again, you should only plant it around if you don’t have children around.

  • Buy Diatomaceous Earth

In case you don’t know what it means; it’s the fossilized algae, diatoms. All you need to do is sprinkle it around the house and the moment any flea tries to cross where the powder is, it will coat, dehydrate and then die. What makes it more effective is that it makes the fleas agitated as well as come out in numbers and in that way, they meet their death. Ensure that you sprinkle the powder in all infested areas then leave it that way for about 24 hours. I bet you’ll watch with pleasure when these wingless intruders start dying after 6 hours. When they’re all dead, vacuum your house thoroughly as you pay more attention to the carpets and mattress edges.

Always use the food grade type when you want to eradicate fleas because it’s non-toxic to humans.

  • Use horse apples

If you can find horse apple, then you’ll be able to get rid of those flea from your home. Call it Osage orange if you like, or monkey ball, but what’s important to know, is that this apple that belongs to mulberry family is an effective repellent and will show those insects the door. Because they too can’t stand it in some way, they won’t be stubborn and they’ll leave your house in peace.

All you need to do is take a horse apple, cut it into pieces and then place them in strategic places like around the house or windows, inside the rooms as well as in the yards. You can leave them there and even forget that they exist because they’re even more effective when they’re rotten.

Getting flea-control tablets or a flea collar for your dog?

My vet has suggested getting flea-control tablets for my dog. They are very expensive. Are they worth getting or will a flea collar do the job?

Fleas spend most of their life cycle living in dry, sandy soil containing plenty of humus. Towards the end of their lives, adult fleas feed on either cat or dog blood and this stimulates the laying of some 1500 eggs per flea completing the life cycle. Effective flea control requires that this cycle be broken.

First, adult fleas must be killed as soon as they gain access to a cat or dog.

Secondly any flea eggs must be prevented from hatching to become adults. To do this efficiently, two products must be used on every cat or dog in a household. There have been many products developed over the years to kill adult fleas. Many have not worked and some have been highly toxic when used incorrectly.

Unfortunately, fleas, like other rapidly reproducing insects, eventually render good ones ineffective and the search is always on for better products. The best technology for adult flea control is droplets placed on the skin at the base of the neck once a month. The tablets suggested by your veterinarian render flea eggs sterile and with long-term usage the total viable flea egg population on your property drops with the result that your animals experience few adult fleas. For cats this product is available in injectable form lasting six months. Flea control is expensive but the treatment of pets for fleabite dermatitis is even more so.

How to control fleas without poisons

Tiny as they are, fleas cause enormous headaches for dog owners. Fleas live inside as easily as outside; they survive in carpeting for up to one year; they have and reproduce in vacuum cleaner bags; and some of them carry tapeworms that can infect your dog if eaten. How to control these pesky parasites eludes many dog owners and severely tests their patience, to the point that many turn to toxic flea control measures that can be worse than the flea infestation. (Note. Flea control measures for cats are sometimes different than those for dogs. Cats lack the ability to break down some toxic pesticides like pyrethrin).

Most owners become resigned to the fact that ridding their dog’s environment of fleas is an ongoing effort. Fleas easily reinfest both the house and the yard. Also, your dog can easily pick them up on a walk. So it’s better to look at this as “flea control” rather than total elimination.

Common flea-control methods include flea bombs, sprays and powders, dips, shampoos, collars, tags, combs, food additives, and spot-on products. Following is a general description of each method, its pros and cons, and my advice for what works best, based on my twenty years of experience as a veterinary doctor and being a dog owner.

Flea Bombs. In cases of severe infestation, flea bombs – aerosol cans that release insecticides – have been one of the traditional methods used to combat fleas. However, the toxic residue makes this method undesirable.

My Advice: A nontoxic system used by the company Fleabusters yields the same overall results without the problems. Fleabusters operates in many cities in the United States. They will come to your home and use a nonpesticide formula to control fleas.

Also, try treating your home using the following methods. just remember that fleas like areas that have a high degree of humidity, so give special concentration to shady and damp areas. Always treat around doorways and comers and anywhere your dog, lies down the most.

  • Use the Williams Flea Trap, a device that combines a small green light to provide heat and light attraction and a sticky pad which captures fleas. Available in hardware and pet stores (see Resources).
  • Make a homemade “flea trap”: You’ll need a night-light, a baking pan filled with water; and an electrical outlet in the flea-ridden area of your home. Plug in the night-light and place the pan beneath it. The fleas will be attracted to the light and heat. When they jump at the light, they will fall into the water and drown.
  • Change the bag in your vacuum cleaner after every use, or vacuum up flea powder into the bag to stop flea breeding.
  • Sprinkle 30 Mule Team Borax (from the detergent section of the grocery store) on your carpets and rugs. (Always test a section first to make sure it will not damage the rug.
  • In the yard, spray a solution of borax and water in all flea-infested areas. Discontinue use if your dog licks the borax-treated plants. Do not use on grass and plants unless you test an area first.

Sprays and Powders. Flea sprays and powders are designed to be “quick kill.” Sprays and powders don’t stay on dogs for long, so they need to be applied more often. This includes both herbal and chemical sprays. Although most chemical sprays are effective, they contain pyrethrin. Pyrethrin, which is derived from chrysanthemums, can be toxic when given in large doses or to smaller dogs or puppies, who may be sensitive. These sprays, however, are less toxic than other pesticide-based sprays on the market because their chemical toxicity breaks down within twenty-four hours. If you use a pyrethrin-based spray, follow the manufacturer’s instructions carefully.

Although some herbal sprays can help m flea control, they vary in effectiveness, and some dogs have allergic reactions to ingredients such as pennyroyal and eucalyptus. If you buy a new herbal flea spray, try it on one paw first. If your dog is allergic to the ingredients in a particular product, you will see reactions such as red and itchy skin, which the dog will bite and scratch at.

Flea powders are sprinkled on the dog; they are messy and require reapplication every few days.

My Advice: You may have to use chemical control for a serious infestation of fleas. If so, use a pyrethrin-based product that contains Pre-Cor, a substance that retards the growth of flea larvae. This will ensure that fleas in all stages of the life cycle are killed. However, first try natural methods such as the following homemade spray:


In a 16-ounce bottle, mix the following.

  • 2 tablespoons cider vinegar
  • cup Avon’s Skin-So-Soft
  • cup water
  • 1/8 teaspoon oil of citronella (optional)

To repel fleas, rub into the coat with the fingers. Apply every two to three days.

Flea Dips. Applied after a bath, flea dips are designed to stay on the hair and skin to repel fleas. Commercial flea dips contain strong pesticides that are effective in repelling fleas, but they are also toxic. My Advice: Use flea dips sparingly, only in cases of severe flea infestation.

Flea Baths. You can bathe your dog with a flea shampoo that is pyrethrin-based, or use a regular detergent shampoo and leave it on for ten minutes before rinsing off. (Flea shampoos can dry the skin, so DO NOT use this type of shampoo unless there is a flea problem).

My Advice: Flea baths work, so go ahead and try them. Keep in mind, however, that shampoos will kill the fleas in your dog’s coat, but it will not repel them.

Flea Collars and Tags. The collars and tags that use chemical pesticides emit toxic fumes that are supposed to get rid of fleas, but unfortunately, both the dog and the owner have to inhale these fumes too. Many dogs react with severe cases of dermatitis, ranging from hair loss and scaly skin to open lesions. Many of the herbal collars tags contain pennyroyal and eucalyptus, which dogs sometimes are allergic to.

My Advice: I don’t recommend flea collars and tags, because I don’t find either chemical or herbal types to be effective. I also don’t recommend tags that repel fleas using sound frequencies because we don’t know how the sound frequencies will affect the dog’s health over a long period of time.

Flea Combs. This specially designed comb with teeth that are very close together allows you to literally capture the fleas as you comb your dog. When you do this, have a glass water nearby with a couple drops of dish detergent in it to dunk the combed-out hair and captured fleas immediately, so the fleas will drown.

My Advice: Use flea combs at least once a day. They work best on short-haired dogs and on those that are frequently groomed.

Food Additives. Food additives have been gaining popularity as an easier way to deal with fleas. The main ones used are yeast, garlic, and a tablet called Proban, an insecticide that I don’t recommend. Proban acts as a systemic insecticide; it is dispersed throughout the body. When a flea bites the dog, the insecticide kills the flea. Since the flea must first bite the dog to be affected by the Proban, this product will only work after the fleas have bitten the dog. Some dogs are allergic to the bite of the flea; this product won’t be helpful if that’s the case. Also, feeding your dog an insecticide can result in toxic problems in the future as well as put stress on the dog’s body.

Yeast has not been as effective as many holistic veterinary professionals had hoped it would be. Recent studies have found no conclusive evidence that it assists in repelling fleas, and I have known only a few dogs that benefitted from yeast in this way

My Advice: I have found garlic to be helpful in repelling fleas, but it must be fed in large quantities or in condensed, high-potency forms such as Kyolic, which I have found to work the best. Give your dog one clove of crushed raw garlic daily for each ten pounds of body weight, or two tablets or capsules of condensed, high-potency garlic capsules for each ten pounds of body weight. (Most dogs will eat tablets out of your hand. A higher dose can be used, but start out with the lower dose to make sure your dog tolerates garlic. High potency garlic is also available in a liquid form that is easy to squirt into the food.

Spot-On Products. A newer item available to fight fleas is a spot-on type of product that is placed on one or two specific areas of the dog’s skin. These products are absorbed through the skin and are systemic; they can also be toxic.

My Advice: I do not recommend spot-on products because I have concerns about how they will affect both the dog’s and the owner’s health.

My two poodles accompany me on house and “farm” calls – to barns, out to the fields, and into homes with other pets – so they are more susceptible to fleas than most dogs. I find that a combination of the non-toxic flea control methods I’ve described keeps my dogs and me healthy and comfortable.

Flea Allergies

Dogs are extremely allergic to flea bites. This syndrome has steadily increased over the last twenty years, and the veterinary profession is trying to understand why. Veterinarians see many cases to flea-bite dermatitis. These dogs often have hair missing from their backs down to their tails. Some dogs are affected by flea allergies more than others, with hair loss extending down their legs, and large bumps and infected areas on their backs. Each case is a little different, and each must be treated individually when seeking to improve the condition.

These same symptoms can be a result of other allergies as well, and it may be necessary to check for other possibilities, including food allergies. Two common foods that dogs are allergic to are soy and corn. Some dog owners have fed their pets diets that exclude such grains (a lamb and rice diet, for example), but it is wise to have persistent conditions looked at by a holistic veterinarian who will search for underlying causes.

The question that must be answered in order to be successful in treating a flea allergy is: Why is the dog allergic to fleas? Once this is determined, treatment can be initiated. There is likely to be an immune system problem, and one has to play detective to find the underlying cause. The possibilities include: vaccine reactions, food allergies, environmental reactions, and genetic predisposition. Often just the symptoms (itching and scratching, pepper like debris in the hair that’s combed out during grooming, and loss of hair down to the tail) are addressed without trying to treat the cause of the immune system dysfunction. A holistic veterinarian will look at the possibilities and try to find a treatment that will address the immediate symptoms as well as the root cause.

Also see-

How to Get Rid Of Bed Bugs

Get rid of head lice

Get rid of Mosquitoes

How to Get Rid of Mice

How to Get Rid of Bees

How to get rid of termites

How to get rid of Spiders

Get rid of cockroaches



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Getting rid of cockroaches

There are few insects like cockroaches that are as are as repulsive, resilient or reproductive as cockroaches. They can live by eating only once a month, if unattained can pair and produce 30,000 offspring in a year and are potential carriers of food poisoning,, dysentry, diphtheria, hepatitis and typhoid .


Of more than 400 native species of cockroach the local species are not known to be a pest and stay outside the house. The main problems are the imports species like -the large American and Smoky Brown roaches. The smaller softer-bodied German species reaches 10-15 mm, can go to tiny cracks and crevices of Kitchens and bathrooms are are a real terror.


Cockroaches live in dark, warm and moist narrow cracks and crevices and emerge at night to feed. Places like underneath fridges and stoves; around hot water systems, in piles of newspapers or cardboard; pipes, underneath the floor; in the ceiling; sinks and cupboards.

One cockroach a month during night is a call for control. Dozen of them is a infestation requiring expert help. In that case you better move out and call in a professional pest controller.


Permethrin, is an insecticide which has high effectiveness and very low toxicity to humans.

A new generation insecticide called hydramethylnon are less repellent to cockroaches and better at enticing them inside.If the label says the bait contains an organophosphate such as chlorpyriphos you have old bait.

But rememmber- to remove all food and utensils before application to avoid contact with insecticides.

An effortless way is to, try cockroach bombs.

These foggers come in a spray can and usually contain insecticides like permethrin but also insect growth regulators . These hormone work long-term by preventing the insects to reach their sexual maturity.

Researchers say the hormones are specific to insects and therefore are less toxic to humans than other compunds like sugar or salt.

Other than aerosols-as several environmentalists advise against them-you can also go for baits, traps and borax, which is relatively cheaply available from chemists.

Borax can be used by placing a mixture of mixture of five per cent borax in sugar on a small lid where children and pets cannot reach.

Traps can also be used.

Spraying the breeding areas with synthetic pyrethroids such as permethrin, allethrin and tetramethrin.

You can also seal cracks and crevices in cupboards or around around pipes to prevent access from outside.

Co-operation from neighbors is also required as cockroaches revells in garbage, drains and sewers and then tramp inside. Doing it alone in a block of units wont do any good and is a waste of time even if you are scrupulously clean and have killed every cockroach in the place. In serious situations, the whole block is needed to be fumigated. Doing it on only one house is futile.


  • BAITS: Containing hydramethylnon include Maxforce are available. Borax which is also recommended.
  • SPRAYS: They contain permethrin. Some generic brands are Raid, Scotts, and Mortein Low Toxic Insect Killer.
  • BOMBS: Contain insect growth regulator.Example are Zoecon Roach Ban and Mortein Roach Bomb.

When cockroaches find their way home they come with lots of damages beyond your imagination. In fact, their presence means that nothing in your house except metals are safe. You and the whole family is not speared too because they are best at spreading germs especially when they snack on your food.

They’ll damage your items ranging from electronics, wallpaper, books, clothes and much more. What worsens the situation is that getting rid of them can be the hardest of tasks. If that’s your situation, worry no more because. I have the solution to your problem and I will help you to kick them out permanently. Check this out: 9 ways to get rid of cockroaches!

  • Use pandan leaves

Did you know that cockroaches can’t stand sweet smell? Well, now you know. And because of the sweet smell of the pandan leaves, their presence, will repel and get rid of roaches out of your house. All you need to do is look for pandan leaves and cut each into two, tie them in knots and put them in every place that these intruders are hiding. Having these leaves in your house is also beneficial because your house will smell fresh always as long as you replace them when they dry up.

  • Trap them in a soda bottle

I bet you’ve heard of it but you just think it’s an old method, that can’t work. Well, it works miracles as far as getting rid of roaches is concerned. Get a soda bottle, cut its top, remove its cup, and then have it placed upside down inside the bottle. Have soapy water inside the bottle and leave it there for some few days. Because they love the solution, they will try to reach it, but instead, will be drowned into the solution. This method remains the simplest and most effective way of getting rid of roaches.

  • Get a fragrant spray

Cockroaches breathe through their skin and therefore, they will suffocate in the presence of fragrance hence die slowly. If they detect its presence, they will escape as quickly as possible. I would strongly recommend that you use fabric softener to spray on them. You know that it’s soapy, which makes gaseous exchange through the skin of cockroaches difficult. Of course, nothing can stay alive if it can’t breathe.

Al you need to do is mix a fabric softener with twice the amount of water and pour the mixture into a clean spray bottle. Spray on the cockroaches and all their nesting areas.

  • Sprinkle with boric acid

Can you get boric acid? If you answered yes, then you won’t have more problems with those little intruders. All you need to do is mix the boric acid with sugar –ensure the two mixtures are of equal amount – then sprinkle in the affected areas. If possible, sprinkle everywhere. Concentrate on areas like kitchen cabinets, drawers, bathrooms among other places and items.

They will eat the powder and die marking the end of your struggle. Even though boric acid is not directly harmful to your health, they can cause food poisoning and therefore before you start the exercise, keep food away.

  • Flour

Flour is among the powders that are harmful to many insects. It would work best if you mix it with sugar as well as boric acid. Sprinkle the mixture in relevant areas to kill the cockroaches and other insects.

  • Spray them with hair spray

I bet you never saw this coming but it works magic on cockroaches. Because they’re sticky, spray them on the invaders and they will be stuck wherever the spray find them. They won’t be able to move any part of their body and in that way; they’ll suffocate or starve to death. The others will not try to step on the sticky place and so; they will disappear. So, next time you see one scrolling around, just reach for your spray, which is present in almost all homes.

  • Use coffee to trap cockroaches

It’s been proven beyond reasonable doubt that cockroaches are attracted by the smell of coffee, and caffeine is poisonous to them. So get some few cups, which you’ll add a mixture of coffee grinds and water to each one of them. Place the cups containing the mixture in jars. After which, place the jars in strategic positions where the roaches are found in large numbers.

The coffee aroma will attract them and in that way, they will enter the jar one by one. Once inside, they are trapped and they won’t be able to escape. After about 3 days, empty the jars and cups then repeat the process until your house is free.

  • Use a mixture of baking and sugar

Get baking soda and add the same amount of sugar to form a mixture that will help you get rid of roaches. Sprinkle the mixture in relevant places throughout the house. Because they love sugar, they will be attracted to the mixture and then baking soda will have its chance to cause accumulation of gas into their system so that they die slowly. Its more advantageous to use baking soda and sugar because it’s not harmful in anyway, which makes the user comfortable even with the presence of children.

  • Cayenne pepper

Cockroaches, like other insects, hate pepper with passion, making cayenne the best natural repellent against them. Into 4 cups of boiling water, add at least one teaspoon of cayenne pepper and allow it to cool before pouring it into a clean spray bottle. You can then spray it in all the areas that you believe are the hiding places of the roaches and you’re house will be free from them.

Now, either depending on the item that you can get easily or on the method that you think suits you the most, just choose from the above list and say goodbye to cockroaches. It’s advisable that you get rid of them yourself so that in case infestation occurs next time, you’ll have been a “professional” in handling them. So, go ahead and do the necessary. Say no to roaches!

Also see-

How to Get Rid of Fleas (DIY)

How to Get Rid Of Bed Bugs

Get rid of head lice

Get rid of Mosquitoes

How to Get Rid of Mice

How to Get Rid of Bees

How to get rid of termites

How to get rid of Spiders


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How to Get Rid Of Bed Bugs

Bed bugs are a type of parasitic insect that feed off the warm blood of human beings. Although there are a variety of insects in the same family as bed bugs, a very specific type, called Cimex Luctularius is known for targeting human beings in particular. Recent years have shown a resurgence in the instance of infestations.

The pests received the nick name “bed bugs” for their preference to dwell in the beds or other places where people sleep. The bugs are mostly nocturnal, so it is during the night when they are most likely to feed. Because of this, bed bugs are not quickly detected in the home.

They are belived to be initially come from bat as bat bugs. When human start inhabiting with them in caves these bat bugs made human as their host and became bed bugs. Bat bugs looks almost identical to bed bugs. The only difference is the length of their hair on upper thorax which can be seen only with a use of microscope.

Bed Bug History ……. Why Are They Back?


People are traveling more to countries that are infested.
Lack of education about the signs and existence of bed bugs in society.
Extermination companies have reduced routine spraying for insects.
Bed bug infestation is now a problem in every country in the world.

The blessing of “Don’t let the bed bugs bite” that was given to children at the turn of the 20th century was done because bed bugs were a big problem. Americans’ standard of living was much lower than today and the daily struggle to survive was beyond bugs in your bed.

For a variety of reasons, the late 1990’s put bed bugs back on the map as a real problem. This problem continued to get worse through the turn of the millennium. The amount of cases was growing geometrically and continues to grow at a remarkable pace.

Some of the reasons given include

  1. A significant increase in travel to various countries that never got rid of their bed bug problem and helped bring many of these infestations back into the U.S.
  2. The pest control industry moved to a more environmentally conscious approach where there was little to no routine spraying, thus eliminating what used to be an effective if collateral method of controlling bed bugs and preventing their infestation.
  3. Lack of public awareness. People would have major infestations and either be oblivious to, or deny the existence of bed bugs.
  4. Bed bugs are excellent hitchhikers and can readily attach themselves to a traveler’s luggage and travel with them wherever they go. These factors and others have created what we now know as the bed bug epidemic.

Myths and Facts abut bed bugs

1. No on else in the house has nay bites so they are not from bed bugs.

This is not necessarily true as the infestation may only be small and confined to the one room and have not as yet spread to others rooms in the house. It is also important to realize that we will all react differently to insect bites, some will have a severe reaction that cause very itchy bite marks on the body while others may show no symptoms of a bite at all. Two people sharing a bed can show different signs to a bed bug bite.

2. If you have bite marks them you must have bed bugs

This is another myth as the bites may be from other insect pests such as fleas and mites. The fact that bed bugs are becoming a greater problem and are in the media much more has made people aware of their population build up and this can cause them to immediately blame bed bugs for any bites that they find on their bodies.

3. Bed bugs only live in dirty homes.

This is a big mistake to make, these annoying pests will live in the cleanest of homes as all they need to survive is a blood meal from their host and a small crack or crevice to hide in during the days and between meals. A dirty home will only offer them more places to hide and make it more difficult to find and destroy them.

4.Bed bugs are too small to see.

Bed bugs are very small, but they can be seen during all stages of their lives. The egg is difficult to see as it is only about 1mm long and is always hidden in cracks and crevices where they are hard to find. The adult is about 5mm long so is reasonable easy to see with the naked eye.

5. These pests only feed during the night

Their favourite feeding time is just before the dawn when their host is in their deepest stage of sleep and when they are most unlikely to be discovered. But if they are hungry and their host is sleeping during the day then they will certainly come out of hiding for a meal.

6. Bed bug bites are painful

When a bed bug bites, they inject an anesthetic substance into their host so the actual bite is very rarely felt. The bite will normally get very itchy several hours after the bite when the anesthetic effect of the bite has worn off.

7. Bed bugs only live in the bed.

The most common place to find bed bugs is in the bed, but this is definitely not the only place they will be found. In a large infestation they can be found almost anywhere in the room and this includes hiding in the electrical outlets of the room. They like to be close to their host but will travel a reasonable distance if needed. They can hide in the carpet, cracks in any furniture, cracks in the wall and even behind pictures frames, peeling paint and wall paper.

8. Bed bugs jump onto the bed.

Bed bugs are very good climbers but the are incapable of either flying or jumping. They are similar to ants in this respect and even move across the floor at about the same speed as an ant. The only way they can get onto the bed is by climbing up the bed legs, or up the wall and then onto the bed if the bed is touching the wall or if the bed clothes have been thrown off and are touching the floor then this is another bridge they will use to get to their food source.

9. Bed bugs transmit many diseases.

Fortunately for us this is not correct. Bed bugs unlike mosquito’s will not spread disease from one host to another.

There are really two main problems associated with bedbug bites. The first problem is the very unpleasant itchy and raised red welts on their skin where they have been bitten. They bite usually are in row of three. Excessive scratching can cause damage to the skin and this can then lead to the possibility of infections.


The other side effect of bedbug bites is actually not a physical problem but it is a psychological reaction to the knowledge that these very small bloodsucking insects are present in their beds and are making a feast on their blood while they are sleeping at night.

It is not uncommon for some people to become so distressed that they are unable to sleep at night due to the fear of being bitten again will they are sleeping. These emotional side effects normally start by the victim being kept awake throughout the night by these painful itchy bites, this lack of sleep and then cause the other problems of stress and anxiety that can even lead to depression if this problem is not resolved

10. Bed bugs can go without a meal for a year or more.

This can be the case but only if the conditions are perfect, the room temperature would need to be very low where their metabolism would slow down and they would not need to feed. This is very unlikely to happen in a home where heating will keep the temperature high enough for them to need food more often. Under normal conditions they would only survive for up to two months.

Bed Bug Behavior and Habit

Some of the ways to find bed bugs and the signs of bed bugs infestation is to de-clutter the room. This makes the inspection procedure easier. Beds must be dismantled and all drawers and desks must be completely overturned to expose the hiding insects. A flash light might be handy for looking into cracks, crevices, joints and inside fabrics.

A magnifier and a flash light can be used as a they may sometimes go unnoticed due to their small size.

Bugs hide:

  • in the seams of your mattress.
  • between the mattress and box springs.
  • in the box springs – they especially like the corners and the airy fabric on the bottom of most box springs.
  • behind your headboard
  • in your nightstand in and under and behind the drawers and on the bottom
  • same with your dresser and dresser drawers
  • in/under your carpet
  • behind wall plugs and switch plates
  • in the ceiling light fixtures
  • along baseboards
  • behind pictures and sometimes in picture frames behind the picture mat
  • inside your walls

Obviously most preffered locations are areas around the bed and gradually they spread to all parts of the room with time.

Electronic appliances like radios, phones etc. should also be checked along with picture frames, electrical switch plates and other places within the room which might offer a protected hiding place for the bugs. A strong coriander-like odor may be noticed in places which are highly infested with bed bugs.


The appearance of bed bugs differs from childhood to adulthood. The nymphs have a translucent appearance immediately after hatching and are almost colorless. With time, as they progress through the stages of molting, they gradually change color and take on a brownish color. The reddish brown color of an adult bed bug comes only with age and maturity.

Sources: Princeton University, Tribune News Service

The young bed bugs need regular meals to grow into healthy adults. Immediately after hatching, they start feeding on blood.

Although the adult bed bugs can live without food for long durations, the younger ones need to be fed at least once during each stage of molting. It is not possible for them to advance from one stage to the other without proper feeding. Each bed bug passes through five stages of molting before attaining maturity.

The young bed bugs advance from childhood to adulthood within a short period of time.

About 5 weeks of time is enough for a bed bug to mature into an adult. After attaining maturity, they become reproductive and start the life cycle of hatching eggs.

Due to this fast growth, infestation can occur quickly and steadily when left unattended. It may be difficult to find the younger bugs in their hiding places as their body color helps them to camouflage with their habitat.

The young nymph takes on a red color when it sucks blood from the host’s body.

This is due to their translucent body. Their bodies become swollen and larger in size after feeding. Usually the younger bed bugs are 1.6 mm in length when they are born.

The young bed bugs go through stages of molting which consist of shedding their skin 5 times. At first glance they look similar to their adult counterparts as they molt, but their color and size differ.

They can be particularly menacing because they need regular meals of blood. Hosts are particularly at risk from the younger ones due to this constant need for feeding and can suffer from severe itching. Medication is quite often required to cure the itching.

The Best Offense is a Good Defense

1) Be careful not to bring bed bugs infested items into your home.

When traveling, inspect :

  • luggage
  • clothing
  • bedding
  • furniture
  • airplane carryons
  • ship
  • train
  • bus
  • After returning from vacation, thoroughly vacuum your luggage.
  • When staying in hotel rooms, take a flashlight with you to inspect the bed frame and mattress for tell-tale signs of bed bugs.
  • Before bringing in second-hand furniture, beds, or mattresses to your home, thoroughly examine the items to make sure there are no bugs hiding in corners, joints, and seams.
  • Bringing cloths from your laundry remove cover outside your home.
  • When you coming from cinema before you entering bedroom put your dress in the wash machine.

Hotels and motels can be easily infested due the the amount and variety of people coming from different countries.

Once a female bed bug takes a blood meal, she will start a local infestation. Upon the introduction of bed bugs, they can spread room to room throughout a whole building.

One of the best ways to prevent bed bugs from entering your home is to establish preventative measures which will deter the bugs from ever causing you discomfort in the first place.

Bats, swallows, chimney swifts, pigeons, or other animal hosts that occupy your home can also transmit bed bugs although these are a bit different from the common human bed bug. For example, Bat bugs can feed on humans. One can recognize bat bugs by the long hairs on its body.

Non-Chemical Control of Bed Bugs

If you have found out that your sleeping area has been taken over by an army of blood sucking free loaders, you don’t have to lose hope. There are plenty of techniques by which you can eliminate these pesky bed bugs. These techniques are not damaging to the environment or your body, which are important considerations to make in any attempt to eliminate bug populations.

The Bedding

Get rid of the mattress if it is laden with bed bugs.

  • If you notice blood spots or dark marks on your bedding, immediately check all areas of your bed, mattress, and bedding for bed bugs.
  • Put all covers and clothing into large plastic bags and dump the clothing and other laundry straight into washer from the plastic bags. Immediately dispose of the bags. Hot water should be used to wash the clothing and other laundry for 20 minutes or more. Also, dry at high on the dryer.
  • Keeping your rooms extremely clean helps you spot and kill bed bugs.

Steam applications

Bedbugs cannot cannot survive in extremely hot conditions like above 113 degrees Fahrenheit.

Steam cleaning therefore either with a steam cleaner or using expert service can be effective treatment to kill them in the bed or mattress itself and is effective for abut 3/4 inch deep on mattress, carpet on cracks

Steam will kill all life stage of the bed bug including the eggs, but it cannot control the problem alone and must be used with other control methods.

When considering a steam machine for killing bedbugs choose one that will produce steam with a low vapour flow but with a high temperature and preferable one that will produce “dry steam” as this will have the benefit of a quick drying time. It is also best if the unit has a continual flow feature. Otherwise you will have a lot of down time as the machine goes through the cooling and reheating phase.

The pressure of the steam should be low otherwise the bed bugs may be blown across the room without being in contact with the steam long enough to be killed and this will only help in spreading the problem even further. Use a machine with multiple jet stream heads for the best results. It is best to not use a brush head as these may flick the bugs and eggs away without killing them.

It is vital when using steam to kill bed bugs that the head should be in direct contact with the area being treated. If the head is held above the surface the temperature of the steam will drop very quickly and may not be hot enough when it finally comes into contact with the bed bug to kill it, only a few centimeters too high will render the steam to cold to kill bed bugs.

When steam is employed to kill bed bugs you will need to remove any items that moisture can damage and also provide good ventilation to prevent a build up of humidity that can encourage mould growth.

Every corner of the room must be checked and cleared along with the furniture. Cushions, cupboards, drawers and mattresses must be overturned to ensure that there are no hiding bugs or eggs. Even the bedding can be sanitized using this method of steam cleaning. Steam cleaning is eco friendly also as it does not produce or leave and toxic chemicals behind.


  • Glue traps can be used to monitor bed bugs, however, they are not effective for bed bug control.
  • Delicate materials can be placed into the freezer if they will be harmed by the heat in the drier and the washer. Bedbugs can also die from cold temperatures below freezing, but the chilling period must be maintained for at least two weeks.
  • If possible keep all parts of the house lighted at all times because bed bugs thrive in dark and dirty places.

Diatomaceous Earth for Bed Bugs

Diatomaceous Earth for bed bugs is an all natural product that is made from very small fossilized water plants. This is a chemical free way to control these tiny pests that can also help to control other insect invaders such as ants, earwigs, cockroaches snails.

The way this product kills these insects is that the edges of this material is razor sharp and when these insects come into contact with it, their waxy covering is scratched away. Diatomaceous Earth is very dry and the moisture in the insects is evaporated and they will die within 48 hours.

Diatomaceous Earth for bed bugs does take time to control an infestation of bed bugs but one of the best things about using this product is that it will not evaporate or disappear until you remove it yourself, this means that as long as it is left where these bed bugs are found, it will keep killing them.

Since bed bugs may only feed once in 10 days they may continue to hide and not come into contact with the Diatomaceous Earth until the next time they want some of your blood, so it is best to leave it in place for as long as possible so it can continue to eliminate bed bugs that may try to re-infest your home. Also any newly laid eggs need time to hatch before they new born bed bugs can start to move around and come into contact with the DE.

How to apply Diatomaceous Earth for Bed Bugs

When applying DE it is advisable to search for any likely hiding place that these pests may live in. Use a puffer bottle to puff the powder into any cracks, crevices or other hiding places. It is also a good policy to use spackle or caulk to seal over these cracks to permanently stop them from using these places as a home.

If your floors are cover with carpet, then you can sprinkle some DE into the carpet to control bed bugs, you may need to reapply after vacuuming the room.

The Diatomaceous Earth that is used in maintaining swimming pools is not going to work as a bed bug killer. Even though it has the same name and comes from the same source it is not fine enough to do the job, so if you intend to use it to eliminate bed bugs, please use the correct type of DE.

Is Diatomaceous Earth Safe for Pets?

This is an important question if your have pets in your home, and fortunately the answer is that it is safe to used around pets. It will not only kill bedbugs but can also be used to control ants, silverfish, fleas, cockroaches carpet beetles and crickets.

Watch this video below to see how this substance kills bed bugs.

Bed Bug Traps

Bed bug traps are one way of knowing if you have a bed bug problem and they are used to trap these tiny pests so you can correctly identify them so you can then start on the best control method for your circumstances.

Bed bugs are able to track down their food supplied (that’s your blood) by several methods. They can sense your body heat and zero in on where you are, or they are also able to sense the carbon dioxide that you exhale every time that you breathe, and this is their road map to your position in the home.

So knowing these facts about the bed bug we are able to make a bed bug trap that will attract them and capture them.

One method that does not require this is using the Climbups traps that go under the legs of the bed. These traps have a rough exterior so the pests can climb up but the interior of the trap in so slippery that they cannot get out, and are effectively trapped. From here you can collect them for proper identification.

Attracting Bed Bugs

Another trap that is very simple to make and use is one that uses CO2 as the bait. This is because carbon dioxide same as your breathing does attracts them .

The bed bug is able to climb the outer part of the trap but is then not able to escape.

Traps that use dry ice are for short term use only as the dry ice will soon disappear and the trap will be useless until more dry ice is added.

With these types of traps you can put a fine layer of talc powder on the inside of the trap that will make it extra slippery so they are unable to climb out. You can also add some Diatomaceous earth in the traps and this will kill the pests.

Still other traps use pheromones that attract these pests by appealing to their behavior of aggregation, or living together.

Other use Sugar/yeast mixture to produce CO2 to attract bedbugs.

While these traps will catch some bed bugs, they are not designed to eliminate these pests from your home, their main objective is to capture a few for correct identification so you know what sort of insect you are dealing with, and you can then design the best strategies to kill them.

Contact-kill treatment of Bed bugs.

“Contact-kill is a mixture of cyfluthrin, pyrethrins, and piperonyl butoxide.

Lambda-cyhalothrin is also used which function barrier which slow kills bedbugs once they cross it,

It is usually microencapsulated, to make it safe to pets and humans after it dries.

Deltamethrin is another chemical that is also injected into larger crevices. Lambda-cyhalothrin and the deltamethrin are aare strongest for 2 weeks following their application, but usually are effective for up to 60 days.

Gentrol and Phantom are also used. Gentrol contains (S)-Hydroprene, an insect growth regulator (IGR) as the active ingredient that disrupts the normal growth cycle of bed bugs are other insect like cockroaches, stored product pests, drain flies and fruit flies.

Phantom uses chlorfenapyr an active ingredient known as . It is non-repellent and relatively last longer.

If you use these bed bug sprays you won’t worry about these pesky pests again. Each spray complements the other and is used to form an effective defense against bed bugs. Any effective defense against bed bugs requires an effective strategy. Here is ours.

Bed Bug Defense Strategy

Our strategy consists of four elements designed to eradicate, and keep bed bugs out of your home:

  1. Attack – Kill bed bugs and their egg where they live. OK this really isn’t a defensive move, but as they say, sometimes the best defense is a good offense.
  2. Secure – Wall off your home from intrusion. Keep bed bugs out so they won’t make themselves a guest in you home again.
  3. Prevent – Keep bugs out of your bedding
  4. Repel – Keep beg bugs from hitching into your home.

Step 1: Attack Bed Bugs Where They Live

You can use non toxic bed bug spray. Be sure to clean out every place bed bugs can hide. As you’re cleaning look for signs of bed bugs. Little black dots are a good tell tale as are tiny rice sized eggs or discarded bed bug skins. Use a flash light to make the job easier. Clean and Spray where bed bugs are found,this includes:

  • corners of rooms
  • cracks and crevices on walls
  • floors and on furniture
  • mattresses
  • box springs
  • bed rails
  • headboards
  • bed frames
  • baseboards
  • night stands
  • bed room furniture

Vacuum all of these areas. Thoroughly vacuum your bed, the box springs, the mattress, and frame. Take your bed apart, stand the box and mattress on end for easier access and inspection. If you can, remove plates from electrical outlets, and using a non conductive attachment (e.g. plastic), vacuum inside the electrical box. We’re aiming remove bed bugs from all those hidden areas in your home. Once you have vacuumed, remove the bag and put it in your outside trash.

Step 2: Secure Your Home From Bed Bug Infestation

Now that you’ve hit the bed bugs where they live and gotten rid of most if not all of the pest, it is time to secure your home from future infestations. The first thing you’ll want to do is eliminate their hiding spots within your home.

Since bed bugs are small and flat, they can hide in very small and narrow spaces. Our job it to now eliminate as many of those spaces as possible. Inspect your bedroom and adjoining rooms. Patch any holes or cracks in the walls. Even nail sized holes are large enough for bed bugs. Also, caulk and seal your base boards to the wall. Your aim is to eliminate access to the tiny gap between base board and the wall.

Inspect any wall paper and make sure the seams are sealed to the wall, if not, you may find bed bugs taking residence behind the paper.

This can be a tedious job, but it is very important. Take your time. If it takes several days to complete it is OK.

Once you have sealed up you home, it is time to lay down a protective bed bug barrier. For this I would recommend using a residual spray. That continues to kill bed bugs for several weeks after being sprayed.

The idea is to lay down a barrier, which if the bugs cross, will kill them. Spray along your baseboards, the corners of your walls, and in general, anywhere surrounding your bed. As bed bugs crawl to your bed, they will come in contact with the residue, and it will kill them.

Step 3: Prevent Bed Bugs from Taking up Residence in your Bedding

A good preventative measure to take is to seal up your mattress and box springs in a protective cover. You can purchase covers for your bedding as well. These ensure that any bugs, living or from eggs, inside your mattress or box springs never can get out to feed. They will eventually starve to death. Also, the covering means that bugs can no longer make your bedding their home. Between this and the measures you took in step 2, the bed bugs have no place to go. Eventually they run into the residual spray and die.

You may balk at the purchase price of protective covers, but when compared to the cost of purchasing replacement bed springs and a mattress, their cost is small.

You can also install traps to capture any beg bugs trying to get to your mattress. The Climb up Insect Interceptor Bed Bug Trap is placed under all four bed posts and traps any bugs trying to climb into your bed.

Since there are two wells trap bugs, you can tell whether the bugs are coming from your bed, as they are trapped in the center well, or from your home, as then they are trapped in the outer pitfall.


Step 4: Repel Bed Bugs from Your Belongings

A leading source of bed bugs is through luggage or used furniture. You can reduce the risk of carrying bedbugs into your home by treating your luggage with Bedbug repellant. Usually they are Bed bug killing spray that also target mosquitoes Fleas etc.


Repellents only last for a couple of weeks, so we recommend treating your luggage prior to each trip.

A better way is to use Ultrasonic Insect repellant They also keep rats mice squirrels etc away. It is portable and work by plugging it to electric socket. The range of ultrasonic frequencies repel most pests.

You’ll create a natural barrier around your luggage, and bed bugs will be less apt to try and hitch hike on your luggage.

Other Contact kill Home remedies

Alcohol– Alcohol also has the insecticidal properties on Bedbugs because of its dehydrating property. The only reason they are not so popular as Bed bug killer because they act only when directly sprayed on them or else they evaporate.

Boric acid– Boric acid powder is used for multiple pest control and can be used or bedbugs also. be sure not to use it on beddings or other area human may also come in contact.
Walnut tea- If you can get and sprinkle this tea powder it on affected area it will drives Bedbugs out out and kill them.

Tea tree Oil– This Oil has proven to be a insecticide. You can add few drops of it in water use it to spray in the home or wash your clothes carpets e and affected item with this Oil.

Fine silica gel– Crush some Silica gel and put on all the cracks and places you suspect are their hiding places.
repair your house. Silica gel is sticky so bed bugs get stuck and wont be able to breath or stave to death.

Repair your house-All the cracks and holes in your house will always be a hiding spot for pests. You may use all elimination method but some may reside deep in these cracks So it will be best after your bedbug removal methods to repair your house to fill all those deep cracks and Holes in your house

Exterminators for Killing Bed Bugs

Several companies have ventured into offering bed bug extermination services. Most of these companies use the same principles of preventing infestation. They are also best equipped in helping with getting rid of bed bug infestations.

Such companies use powerful insecticides that can penetrate the cracks and crevices in the house, the furniture and the beddings to destroy their breeding grounds and disrupt their life cycle. It is important to ask the professionals to use only safe pesticides that may not pose danger to the occupants of such a home.

You can also visit the National Pest Management Association. They also have listings of the locations of pest control professionals capable of taking care of your bedbug problems..

If done correctly, whether by DIY or through a professional getting rid of bed bugs is a vital step in keeping a home safe and protecting the life of its occupants. For those who suspect that their homes are infested, it may be better to seek the services of professionals as opposed to DIY because they have the expertise to kill all the bed bugs plus their eggs.

Also see-

How to Get Rid of Fleas (DIY)

Get rid of head lice

Get rid of Mosquitoes

How to Get Rid of Mice

How to Get Rid of Bees

How to get rid of termites

How to get rid of Spiders

Get rid of cockroaches


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Get rid of head lice

What Causes Head Lice Infestation and How are Lice Spread?

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Get rid of Mosquitoes

Did you know that mosquitoes cause more human suffering than any other organism on the planet? Over one million people die from mosquito borne illnesses each year.

Fortunately in the United States, diseases such as Malaria, a disease that reportedly kills one child every 40 seconds is well under control.

However, mosquitoes are the cause and transmitters of many other debilitating illnesses that are alive and thriving in the US such as Dengue Fever, West Nile Virus and Zika Virus.

The temperature is on the rise and the spring rains are pouring. Have you prepared your house and safeguarded your family and pets from the most deadly animal in the world?

Before we go into the mosquito killer products available lets first look at some interesting facts about mosquitoes. The more we know about them, the easier it will be to kill them.

Mosquito Life Span

Mosquito Hatching Time

Every time a female mosquito decides to lay eggs in a source of stale water, around 200 eggs are deposited. These mosquito eggs are special in the fact that they have floats that allow them to stay above the water and will hatch within a couple days. These specialized eggs are not resistant to drying out, however. Often times, a pack of mosquito eggs can be confused for dirt or muck floating around in water. The science of a lifespan of a mosquito is very interesting in nature; the insect goes through 4 stages throughout it’s lifetime.

First, the mosquito hatches from the egg and turns into swimming larvae. It takes around 24 hours for the eggs to hatch if the temperature is right, and then the eggs will hatch into water where they will start searching for food. In fact, baby mosquitoes spend the first 10 days of their lives under water. A female will lay over 100 eggs at a time, but depending on the water source, there can be thousands of eggs present.

These baby mosquitoes eat tiny microscopic organisms living in the water they hatched in. These insects have no legs and move around with a tail-like structure. Mosquito larvae have a detailed head and brushes on their mouth which they use to feed with. These young insects must come to the surface to breath through their spiracles every few minutes. As you can see in the image below, eggs are laid in pools of water, sometimes even ponds, that are thriving with microscopic bacteria that the emerging baby mosquitoes will use as food.

Mosquito Life Expectancy

Many readers and individuals wonder what the average lifespan of a mosquito is during the summer months especially since they are so pesky and arouse so many problems. Depending on the species and the environment that the mosquito is living in, the maximum age of a mosquito varies greatly.

For example, an average lifespan of a female anopheles mosquito is generally under 24 weeks. The stages of egg, larva, and pupa mosquito’s life lats between 7 to 14 days, while the adult stage generally lasts a full 14 days. During this time, the female mosquito will be on the search for future mates and places to lay eggs after finding a blood source. The blood from a host is required to nurture the eggs in a pregnant mosquito fly.

The female mosquito is ready to mate almost immediately after becoming and adult fly.

The male mosquito can take up to 3 days for the reproductive parts to become fully developed enough to mate properly. Breeding and eating are the two main goals of these incredible specks of nature, practically in that order too.

On the contrary, a male mosquito generally will not live longer than 10 days. The only purpose of a male mosquito is to pollinate flower and mate with the females.

Another interesting fact that not very many people know is that these insects will usually not fly more than a mile from their hatching environment. It is said they can fly up to 5 miles from birth, but they are reluctant to move and don’t want to waste energy flying 1 mile per hour towards a goal.

Others ponder at how long do mosquitoes live indoors or simply during the colder months. Depending on the food source and the current temperatures of the house or shed that the flying insect may find shelter in, the lifespan could be shortened to a few hours.

If the temperature is below 50 degrees, they will start hibernating. Mosquitoes love warmer weather and will shut their bodies down for the winter. Any eggs laid will also go into a hibernation mode until it is warm enough for them to hatch.

Are mosquitoes choosy as to whom they bite ?

Science supports personal experience in this matter: mosquitoes are partial to certain people. Their preferences appear to be dictated by biochemical factors. Mosquitoes are drawn to carbon dioxide and amino acids respiratory and metabolic by products that are given off in different amounts by different people, and that increase for any given person as the level of physical exertion increases.

Mosquitoes also like heat, and since dark colors absorb heat, whereas light colors reflect it, they flock to dark clothing and hair. Because of all the metabolic variables, culicidologists those who study mosquitoes cannot say whether the insects similarly prefer dark skin to light. Haute cuisine for a mosquito, then, might take the form of a jogger in black Lycra at the close of his or her run.

How high do mosquitoes fly?

Mosquitoes typically fly less than 25ft from the ground. If they fly closer to the ground, they aren’t subjected to the wind conditions as much as they would be if they were flying higher. However, in saying that, there has been reports the the Aedes Aegypti have been found breeding in tree holes 40ft above the ground. They have also been found in apartments in Singapore on the 21st floor.

When are mosquitoes most active?

Peak activity for mosquitoes in the United States for most breeds is during dusk hours. However, there are approximately 175 mosquito species in the U.S and their activity levels and habits vary significantly. For example, the Aedes Aegypti prefers an indoor environment and is more likely to bite during the day (it doesn’t have to battle weather conditions inside the home). Conversely, the common house mosquito will avoid activity during the day to protect itself from sun exposure which can dehydrate and kill them and they commonly seek out damp, shady areas until dusk returns.

Do mosquitoes die after they bite you?

No, mosquitoes don’t die after biting humans, well they do eventually but not directly after one blood meal. If a mosquito is successful enough to bite multiple victims, they can lay eggs multiple times – as many as five clutches of more than 100 eggs.

What eats mosquitoes?

You will be glad to know that mosquitoes have their own natural predators that prey on mosquitoes such as bats, birds, lizards, spiders, fish and humans, we might not eat them but we can be their worst nightmare – especially a human armed with one of the best mosquito killers such as a dangerous mosquito fogger….look out mosquitoes!

Mosquitoes are incredibly resilient and adaptable and it would be extremely difficult to completely eradicate an entire species. Mosquitoes have been on Earth for millions of years and are likely to stick around for millions of years to come. You may be surprised to know that some mosquito species actually provide value in our ecosystems.

Not only are they a nutritious food source to certain animal species, mosquito larvae also feed on carcasses of insects in the water making nutrients such as nitrogen available for the surrounding plant community. Some female mosquitoes even pollinate plants ensuring plant reproduction.

Mosquitoes may serve a purpose, however their annoyance greatly outweighs their value and are the cause of death for millions of humans around the world; don’t feel guilty if you want to reclaim your outdoor residential area by killing off the mosquito population!

How to Kill Mosquitoes ?

Mosquito Fogger

Do mosquito foggers work? The simple answer is yes. A mosquito fogger is a very effective mosquito killer. If you are looking to control and/or eliminate your insect problem, an insect fogger is an ideal solution to this common frustration.

A mosquito fogger is a device used to disperse a variety of liquid chemicals into the air which is designed to repel or kill mosquitoes and other flying insects. Mosquito foggers are able to reduce these chemicals into microscopic particles, up to as much as 7 times finer than mist. The particle size is so small that it enables the fog to spread and float through the air and penetrate into deep foliage to seek out mosquitoes where they live and hide.


Mosquito foggers are suited to those who experience high populations of mosquitoes and other pesky, flying insects living around their homes or campsites and who need to get in and treat those really hard-to-reach areas such as under decks and front porches or penetrating deep shrubbery.

If you live near a lake or creek or in an area with high rainfall which enable mosquitoes to breed and you wish to exterminate mosquitoes relatively quickly with highly effective results, a mosquito fogger is an ideal mosquito killer for you.


Thermacell is a company commanding a large footprint in the mosquito repellent market and rightly so. Thermacell manufacture unique products that are proven to combat mosquitoes, black flies and noseeums. Their products have been put under rigorous scientific testing by the United States Department of Defense, and have been found to be effective in mosquito, black fly and noseeums prevention. Thermacell products are also used by the United States Army in combat theatres such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Kuwait.


Thermacell products are portable and easy to operate and are suited to those where portability and affordability is at the top of their list. If you are a regular camper, hunter, hiker or general outdoor enthusiast, the Thermacell lantern or portable device is for you. If you are a keen gardener or outdoor entertainer and you prefer not to invest and/or operate a mosquito fogger or large mosquito trap, and want a lower cost solution, Thermacell products are for you.

Mosquito Traps

The benefit of using a mosquito trap over a mosquito fogger is the minimal human effort required to operate it. Mosquito traps typically use a mosquito lure such as Octenol which mimics the human breath to attract and trap the mosquitoes in where they die. It really is a set and forget device so the biggest consideration you will need to address when purchasing a mosquito trap is the location of where your trap needs to be set up for maximum effectiveness. Identify areas around your home that either have standing water where mosquitoes breed, or dense foliage where mosquitoes live and ideally this is where you will need to place the trap.

Once you have your trap set up and you feel like it’s not working as effectively as you hoped, try another location. Factor in wind conditions and direction as mosquitoes may choose to fly upwind, downwind or crosswind in their search for a blood meal. Mosquitoes much prefer damp, shady areas as opposed to sunny spots, so keep that in mind when setting up your trap.


A mosquito trap is the preferable option for anyone who spends time outdoors, has access to electricity and prefers a set and forget device.

Other Mosquito Killers


Summit 20-Pack Mosquito Dunk

Summit Responsible Solutions Mosquito Bits

GreenStrike Mosquito Preventer

Bug zapper

Indoor Pest trap

High power trap

Repellent sticks

Mosquito spray

Mosquito Coil

Indoor Ultrasonic pest repellent

Home Remedies for Mosquito Bites

  1. Aloe Vera

We all are aware of the fact that Aloe Vera is able to heal numerous health conditions, but do you know that it is also extremely beneficial for treating mosquito bites? Just apply some gel from an Aloe Vera leaf directly on the mosquito bites and you’ll be guaranteed of getting relief from the swelling and itchiness instantly.

  1. Ice

When we apply ice on the bites, the nerves which are accountable for conducting the prickling sensation get numbed by the cold shock and thus we get temporary relief from the pain, as well as, itching. However, it is important to know that ice packs will not be able to alleviate the irritation permanently. Also be sure not to apply the ice on your skin directly; rather, wrap them with a piece of clean cloth. Ice works the same way marking an “x” does, it overrides the nerve cells near the bite and tricks your brain into thinking that it doesn’t itch any more. This is a perfect way to stop itching an annoying mosquito bite.

  1. Baking Soda

We use baking soda in our daily life for various purposes. Also known as sodium bicarbonate, it is a very useful mosquito bite therapy. At first prepare a paste by mixing 1 tablespoon of baking soda with an appropriate quantity of water. The resulting solution should be a pretty thick paste, but thin enough to still stir and mix. After applying the paste on the mosquito bite, leave it there for 10 minutes before rinsing it off. Repeat this method several times a day if needed. A quick tip is to make a large batch of the solution and cover it with tin foil or plastic wrap to ensure that it doesn’t dry out.

  1. Honey

Due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial characteristics, numerous individuals use honey as a home remedy for many health conditions. It is being used for hundreds of years for various healing purposes which support its use as a useful therapy for bug bites. All you need to do is apply a small drop of honey on the itchy bite which should be enough to give you instant relief. If you can, local honey is the best option, since it was created with the pollen of local flowers, it will be more in tune with your immune system and be able to produce significant results faster. Start asking around your town for local honey, since it can be a cure to a multitude of many other problems. Instead of buying stale and treated store-bought honey, go for some itch reducing honey that was made from the same plants the mosquitoes drink out of.

  1. Green Tea Bags

Among the most effective home remedies for mosquito bites, mention may also be made of green tea bags which you can apply directly on the afflicted area. Being rich in anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory characteristics, green tea will give you instant relief from the inflammation caused by the bug bites and will also accelerate the healing process by acting as an astringent. If needed, any type of tea will work and even Lipton’s ice tea can help reduce the swelling associated with the itchiness of a mosquito bite.

  1. Peppermint

Peppermint causes a cooling sensation which reaches our brain faster than the itching and thus it is an amazing remedy for mosquito bites. The human brain is able to process only one among the two sensations every time and the cooling agents take precedence more often than not. Remember those little mints that Sonic used to hand out that were so delectable they had to include more than one? Yeah, you want that kind of mint, the kind that will completely take your mind off and distract you from your mosquito bite in the mean time.

  1. Witch Hazel

Another important remedy for bug bites is witch hazel which is a plant-based astringent. Combine baking soda with witch hazel for preparing a paste which will aid in drawing out the excess fluid, thus easing the swelling. Witch hazel has been an effective ingredient in curing all types of ailments throughout the past decade, and bug bites just seem to be a perfect victim for this herbal remedy. Witch hazel can be bought at almost any major superstore, but you may have to ask around since it wanders in department depending on the store. In fact, Witch hazel and Aloe Vera seem to have a lot in common, so it is often recommended to use witch hazel as a replacement for Aloe Vera cream when in a pinch trying to get rid of itchy mosquito bites.

  1. Onion

Sliced or minced onion will reduce the inflammation and also soothe the itching. Furthermore, the mosquitoes will be repelled by the strong smell of the onion which should come as a welcome relief for us. Now, for many people, the smell of onions is absolutely repulsive and disgusting and they would never mess with this method. I recommend trying it for 10 minutes before knocking it because it seems to be very effective on many people if you can get past the horrendous smell. Then again, some people love the smell of onions. Consider chewing bubblegum while chopping the onions to prevent involuntary tears.

  1. Banana Peel

One of the many natural home remedies for mosquito bites are none other than banana peels! After you have consumed a scrumptious banana, simply rub the inside of the fruit’s peel on the afflicted skin where the bug has bitten. The itch will likely be relieved immediately! On top of this, you will also smell fantastic. The idea is that there are special compounds inside the banana’s peel that reduce the inflammation of your skin due to the allergic reaction of the bite.

  1. Hot Spoon

A fast and easy solution to prevent a bug bite from itching will be to hold a spoon underneath a sizzling faucet till it becomes hot and then apply it on the bite for a few minutes. The proteins that trigger the itching are broken down by the warmth of the spoon, thus stopping the ache and soothing the skin.

  1. Rubbing Alcohol

Rubbing alcohol is one among the well-liked home remedies for mosquito bites that may be utilized to ease the itchiness and eliminate the chance of any type of infection.

Absorb the alcohol using a cotton swab and then put it to the contaminated areas of the skin. Initially, it could cause some itching; however, you will quickly feel comfy from the irritation. Mouthwash may also be used as an alternative of rubbing alcohol. Just remember that this can dry out your skin very easily, and thus moisturizer should be used after each treatment.

  1. Toothpaste

Toothpaste can also help in easing the irritation triggered by the mosquito bites. Just massage some amount of toothpaste into the affected parts of the skin. For quicker results, use toothpaste which is extracted from mint because of its anti-inflammatory qualities which makes it one of the most effectual home remedies for mosquito bites. An alternative to the toothpaste method is to simply mix some baking soda or a dilute solution of vinegar in with the toothpaste. The itching caused by the allergic reaction will quickly go away and you will be itch free in no time.

Also see-

How to Get Rid of Fleas (DIY)

How to Get Rid Of Bed Bugs

Get rid of head lice

How to Get Rid of Mice

How to Get Rid of Bees

How to get rid of termites

How to get rid of Spiders

Get rid of cockroaches