Posted on Leave a comment

Thermocouple-inch wide mile deep

Companies and households rely on heat sensors to function properly. It is employed in the manufacturing industry and laboratories across the nation. Even household appliances and auto parts use these sensor types to remain operative and accurate.


Thermocouples are most commonly used temperature sensor used in many types of thermometers and many of our day to day appliances some of which you might not even be ware of. Based on use
they can be divided into industrial and home TC. There working principle is universal but their make and body type are different for different purpose.

Most objects that rely on heat are probably using this device to manage heat convection, regulate temperature, and remain safe. It can measure in almost all type of environment. Ex-hot, cold, harsh, smooth, high pressure, low pressure etc. There are many types but based on use they come for industrial and home use. Otherwise there are standard grade available.

At home they are used in devices like ovens, heaters, refrigerators etc. In industries they come in the form of probes to insert in the temperature measurement region. They are used in power plants, Metal ore smelting, glass industries, nuclear furnace and any other machines or region where monitoring the temperature is necessary for safety or controlling purposes.

What are tcs?

They are the most common type of temperature sensors using plain metallic wires. Their wires are chosen so as to produce a large electromotive force that varies linearly with temperature. There is no known metal or alloy that has all of these desirable features, although some are very close to it.

Since there are no product with this perfect behavior, all electromotive force curves deviate from a straight line or linear response to some degree. In industrial applications, the choice of materials used to manufacture a range is dependent on the temperature to be measured, the type of atmosphere exposed to the material and the required accuracy of measurement.

Why they are called so?

Tcs are formed by coupling together a pair of metal and works on the application of thermal energy. Hence the name.

How were they discovered and what is their principle of operation .

There discovery date back to 1822-23 when Thomas seebeck observed a deflection in a compass needle kept near a closed circuit of two metallic wires whose two junction are at different temperature.

He also discovered that the Potential difference generated was almost directly proportional to the difference in the two temperatures for particular range depending on the type of material of which it is made.

But he thought it to be of magnetic nature .Anyhow the effect was termed Seebeck effect. Later in same century Leopoldo Nobili and Macedonio Melloni continued his work and made a device to measure heat radiation. It was simple group of metal junction in series like a thermopile combined with galvanometer. It may be the first tc made for any measuring purpose.

Working principle

If two metals of different wires are joint at two ends and if temperature of the junctions are different then a current flows through the wires.

For small changes in temperature within the operating region the Seebeck voltage or the EMF (electromotive force) is directly proportional to temperature. Voltage temperature relationship can be approximated as

T= a1( V)+a2(V)^2+a3( V)^3+….. up to N terms.

However a1(V) is quite large as compared to other coefficient and so the relationship is approximately linear for quite long range of temperature. Lot of math here huh!


However Measuring the Seebeck voltage directly is not possible because we must first connect a voltmeter to the lead wires ,and the voltmeter leads themselves create a new thermoelectric circuit at the contact point of voltmeter and tc leads.

Determining the Temperature of by measuring the voltage output.

Reference Junction

How to nullify the effect of extra junction produce

Measuring voltage is an indirect measure of temperature .But it is not possible directly. Consider the diagram above as an example.To measure the temperature we have to connect two wires of say constantan to copper (Red) and Iron to copper (Blue). And then the two ends to a voltmeter.

But Since Constantan to copper and iron to copper will itself generate some voltage it forms another junction as shown above. So we cannot determine exact temperature unless we subtract that the extra voltage difference generated at constantan- copper(Red) and Iron-copper(Blue) junction.

This is only possible if we know the temperature of reference. One way to employ this is to put the junction at reference temperature and thus know in advance the voltage which will be generated at two junctions and thus subtract it eventually to get voltage generated at target surface ie, Iron-Copper junction.


What causes sebeck effect ?

Here is a demo

Suppose a metal wire is heated at one end then electron which are free to move will tend to be denser at cold junction and less denser at hot.

So an electron gradient will be created. And so a net potential difference but since no current can flow in open loop the the potential difference is maintained by balancing two currents inside the metal wire thermal gradient current and current induced by potential difference(ohms law) caused by difference in density of electrons.

Now when two wire of different metal but at identical temperatures at hot and cold junction are joined current flows. Voltages of hot and cold junction of different metals may not be same since it depend the type of metal. So a current is established at two ends.

But the flow of electron at hot and cold junction are opposite since metal with higher hot junction potential will be having lower colder junction potential and vise versa. So the polarity of voltage difference will be opposite at two ends. This is because wire at higher voltage means higher positive charge which implies more negative charge at opposite end than the other wire.

3 Laws of Thermocouples

When connecting wires in tc circuits there are three rules or laws to keep in mind. They are

Law of homogeneous material

A current cannot flow in a single wire loop made of same material by

application of heat alone.S o if there is a temperature difference between two points along the length of a homogenous wire there will not be a voltage difference.

Law of intermediate materials

At uniform temperature the algebraic sum of the thermoelectric emfs in a circuit composed of any number of dissimilar materials is zero .So if a third metal is inserted in either of two wires and if the two new junctions are at the same temperature, there will be no net voltage generated by the new metal.
Law of successive or intermediate temperatures

Provided T1<T2<T3 then if a thermal emf1 is produced by tc made by two dissimilar homogeneous materials whose junctions are at T1 and T2 and emf2 is produced when the junctions are at T2 and T3 , the emf generated when the junctions are at T1 and T3 will be emf1 + emf2.

Advantage of using

The advantages include wide temperature ranges, inexpensive costs, variety, rugged exterior, and simple, self-powered design. The cons, however, are low voltage measurements, non-linear voltage-to-temperature conversion chart, reference requirements, low stability, and low sensitivity.

Industrial temperature measurements ranging between -200°C (-328°F) and over 1450°C (2462°F) is normally achieved with them. They are the only sensors that can be used at very low temperatures, particularly in applications where the accuracy is adequate.

Here is comparison of various sensors most common in use

Source: Omega

Junctions types and errors in thermocouples

There are three kinds of thermocouple junctions

Grounded junction

This junction is in direct contact (welded) to the outer sheath of the probe. Useful where the environment is corrosive and the response time requires is low ie fast acting probe. It gives fast response because the junction is more in contact wit the medium.

Exposed junction

Useful in areas where very fast response time is required. But the nature of gas is preferably non corrosive. It is so because since the junction is exposed it is fast but may corrode away easily. The junction is in direct contact with environment as it extends from a opening in the outer sheath. This opening is tightly sealed to prevent any moisture or the surrounding inside the sheath which may cause error.

Ungrounded junction -this type is used only in potentially electrically hazardous place like transformers etc. The junction completely insulated electrically from the outer sheath. The enclosed junction makes it suitable for it to used in corrosive environment.

What is response time?

It is how much time the sensor takes to reach 63.2% of the sudden change in temperature It is analogous to time constant in electrical circuit. So it has been derived that the temperature rises in the junction takes place exponentially as a capacitor of circuit is charged. At about 5 time constant the temperature of junction is equal to the actual temperature value.

Response time depends on the exposure of junction with the medium and the probe diameter. Smaller the diameter and more expose the junction lesser is the response exposed junction will have least response time

Errors in thermocouples

The following type of error may creep into thermocouple temperature measurement which may add up and affect overall accuracy.

Wire error: Thermocouple wire may not be uniform and homogeneous in its material .It may contain some impurity or other manufacturing defects. So all the thermocouple of same type may not show the reading.nIn this respect type T are considered most accurate with maximum 1.0 °C. error over the range -65 to 130 °C .

Reference junction error: This error is produced to faltering cold junction temperature due to faulty heating or cooling device at junction at cold junction compensation box.

Voltage measurement error: the measuring device which measure voltage and convert it to other form like a transmitter may be faulty and inducing errors.

Linearization error: For all the range of temperature for a particular type of thermocouple the relation between emf and (milllivolts) and temperature is not linear. So depending on the method or formula used to convert the millivolt to temperature the errors are in temperature is affected.

These errors are errors of a newly bought thermocouple. In long term emf drifts and leads to decalibration.

Thermocouple drift and decalibration

When thermocouple is placed in the high temperature region for considerable long time we cannot be sure of the reading of the temperature shown by it.This is because the emf produced by the TC can change over time even though it is at same temperature.This change in emf is called thermocouple drift.

Causes This change is due to change in chemical and metallurgical properties of metal of thermo elements at its surface or at volume or both. It result in change in seebeck coefficient in the some or entire regions of the thermo elements.

At surface following may occur

  • Oxidation of surface material mainly if the thermocouple wires are not protected by sheath or where open wire configuration is used.
  • Corrosion or depletion because of the gas or chemical around the thermo elements.
  • Chemical reaction with the insulator or sheath.

Inside of the thermocouple ie in its bulk changes may occur because

  • The metal of the thermo element may change is metallic phase may undergo allotropic change or diffusion of foriegn material.
  • Metal can undergo grain growth.
  • Continuous stress may cause the internal lattice to undergo deformation and develop voids etc.
  • Ordering transformation which is change in order or symmetry to disorder of the lattice when heated.

Following things are to be noted about thermal drift

It is not 100 % avoidable.

Drift is not caused if seebeck constant changes near the hot end of the thermoelement.

Drift s mainly caused if the thermo elements in between the thermocouple wire undergo change in seebeck constant.

This is because the temperature profile that at hot and cold end region of Tc the temperature in uniform.So any

No effect of change in seebeck coefficient. But at the middle region if seebeck coefficient changes drift may occur.


To ensure reliable and stable operation during its life time enclosure such as sheath thermo wells or protection tubes are used. But some of the noble metal thermocouple are more susceptible to contamination and may cause drift.


A thermocouple drift is irreversible. While after the drift you can change the probe but the detection of drift is important because a faulty reading can make process work incorrectly causing faulty operation of the process.

Sometimes temperature may go higher than the safer limit and may ultimately burn the thermocouple. This may also be caused when the drift is low and thus forcing the controller to raise the temperature further. This may cause halting in process causing loss to business.

For detecting thermocouple drift redundancy of reading can be used. This can also reduce human error in reading. Some controllers like honeywell uses loop resistance method to detect the drift. A drifted thermocouple will have higher resistance then the normal.

Periodic checking of temperature at installation can be done.

How thermocouple calibration is done

Thermocouples calibration is not the same as other instruments.

In fact when the term calibration with respect to thermocouple is used in laboratory it basically implies the validation of the thermocouple to produce required voltage which should match with values in TC emf chart.

It is done by comparison of the two curve the ideal and the plotted.


1.)Put thermocouple in a thermal bath at different temperature

2.)Measure thermal emf produced.

3.) Plot that emf with the temperature on X axis. Subtract emf equivalent of ambient temperature from the emf measured.

4.)Find the new equation for the curve obtained .The curve will be approximately linear. If higher accuracy is required find the coefficients of the higher powers.

If it does not matches or show some deviation sometimes the controller or display device which reads local temperature like thermometer, controller, data acquisition system etc is programed again to match that voltage to the actual temperature. The device does that by readjusting its voltage equation.

So in effect it is calibration of the thermocouple instruments like thermometer, controller, data acquisition etc

For temperature bath

We use Standard temperature source large enough so that the thermocouple can be inserted into it like ice bath. We can use the boiling and or freezing point of a series of pure solvents as those temperatures are well known at STP. Use an accurate thermometer to note down temperature.

Another such heat source is thermocouple calibration furnace. They have fast heating time. Accurate temperature display of about+-0.5decC. Also they can be used to calibrate multiple thermocouples at the same time.

Ok but what does a calibrator does.

It is a thermocouple meter plus simulator.

It is an instrument which reads temperature when TC wires is connected to its input and the calibrator is set to correct TC type.

Also it can simulate and reproduce ideal thermocouple sensor millivolts at its output when set to a temperature and type.


1.)To check that the instrument is reading correct temperature .If not the instrument is adjusted to read correct temperature.

2.) To compare the value read by TC under test and actual temperature reading eliminating the use of charts.

How to read the chart

It consist of rows of values showing millivolt.

The reference junction(cold junction) is Zero degree C for all data.

Each row consist of eleven values

Voltage value is for temperature corresponding to the row containing that voltage value plus the temperature corresponding to column containing that voltage value.


Generally thermocouple probe is enough to sense the temperature of the environment. Working condition in plants etc however is not so favorable for probes and they can be easily damaged For example places like high pressure steam, Flowing fluid etc can easily corrode away the probe Also it is required that the process is not disturbed when we insert a probe through a hole .

So insertion must be airtight. For this reason a thermowell is used. They provide protection from corrosion and are also useful for easy replacement of probe without opening up the process. For this reason they are installed airtight into the system.

They are of 3 types based on installation method.

1.) Welded 2.)Flanged 3.) Threaded

You can easily identify them by picture .

While selecting a thermowell you should watch out

1.)Length Thermocouple are tip sensing unlike rtd which are stem sensing. Therefore length is important to consider because while using thermocouple probe the tip of the probe should be touching the well bottom otherwise it will increase the time delay in measurement which in fact is unavoidable because of the insertion of thermowell but it should be minimized to reduce errors.

There are two types of length stated manufacturer.

Insertion length. or “U”length This is the length of well in the process of measurement. A properly installed element: in liquid, the element should be immersed up to point where it is most sensitive plus one inch. In air or gas, the element should be immersed up to point where it is most sensitive length plus three inches.

Extension length This length is called “T” length and is the extending length which is to extend thermowell and probe through wall or insulation of material. Between two length is the connection mechanism which is flanged threaded or welded.

Bore size used is greater then the size of probe so that more that one probe can be inserted.


They are of 3 types based on installation method.

1.)Welded This connection can be used when the process is not corrosive and routine removal is not required because welding frequently is not economical and is time consuming. This technique is suitable for high temperature & pressure application. As welding make thermowell quite airtight.

2.)Flanged Appropriate for large pipe diameter. Preferable if there is a need for more frequent well replacement such as high corrosion rates. So flanged connection is economical and easy to reinstall. Such a technique is more for high-pressure application.

2.) Threaded suitable for smaller diameter well. Threaded well are easy to install when diameter of well is small., which are not likely to be changed frequently

For high corrosive environment flanged is used where frequent changing is for non corrosive environment and smaller diameter.

You van easily identify them by picture

Stepped Tapered or straight.

Stepped is used to increase time response. Reduced diameter causes easy thermal flow.

Tapered is in between strength (vibration resistance) and time response.

Tapered length are more resistant to vibration of fluid. Vibration is caused from a phenomenon called wake frequency. Actually fluid flowing around well forms a kind of turbulence and if the frequency of wake is equal to (something called the) natural frequency of well the well may vibrate with maximum amplitude and break of. So the natural frequency quoted as velocity rating of well supplied by the supplier should be higher that the fluid velocity .

So in places like high speed fluid like outlet of high power motor a tapered connection will be better to use.

Material according to the corrosiveness of the environment.

There are corrosion charts available from thermowell manufacturers that list the preferred material for different conditions.

Thermocouple installation

Here is detail about the the thermocouple accessories needed for complete installation of thermocouple at industries.

Compression fitting

These type of TC don’t have any perrmanent fittings at end. It is just a sheated probe with wire at other end. So to mount them compression fitting is supplied separately.

Fittings let you adjust the depth of your probe into a system for temperature readings. Use fittings for straight-shaft probes and metal tubing only. These are sort of plumbing instruments used to connect tubes carrying thermocouple probe or wire to comparatively larger length.

These fitting allows to vary the insertion depth of the probe. They are generally made of brass or copper ferrule of size equal to probe and nuts to tighten the ferrule to probe. Its main specifications are Diameter. Choose your fitting according to the diameter of probe its measurement is NPT(National pipe thread).

Compression do not require soldering, so they are comparatively quick and easy to use so disassembling or partial removal for maintenance is easy.

They work at higher pressures and with toxic gases.

Bayonet fitting

In these types of fittings extruder type TC are used which are generally used in plastic industries.
Another application is injection in molding machines or presses in rubber industry.

The thermocouple has a spring loaded adjustable depth bayonet cap and long lead protected with stainless steel flexible armor. This type of arrangement is used because the length can has to readjusted along extruders and the same thermocouple will serve the purpose.

Thermocouple Transmitters

The use of this transmitter is generally recommended when the cost of thermocouple wire and plc input card exceeds the cost of the transmitter and common wire. This transmitter receives the voltage from the thermocouple and converts it into a scalable 4-20 mA analog output.

Different type can be

4-20 ma transmitters

Wireless transmitters

Programmable transmitters Some transmitters are field programmable, while others have a specified range, and are programmed at the factory.

TC temperature transmitters are used to convert millivolt (mV) output of a thermocouple to a reliable 4-20 mA DC current signal. This way Noise, voltage and other effects are defeated.

Transmitters are available according to base metal type because each type represents different temperature range.

Various specifications are included like analog voltage, analog current, resistance, and temperature which tells what transmission method ex-0 – 10 VDC. Devices that receive analog current 4 – 20 mA or resistance like as 0 to 10 ohms.

Mounting styles are different for different type of TC Ex thermohead/thermowell , DIN rail cabinet or rack or on on computer boards

Connectors jaks and plugs

While using extension wires often they deferent pieces of wires need to be connected. So for that purpose jacks and plugs are available. Connect TC wire or temperature sensor instrumentation with a temperature controller or process control HMI automation panel. Specifications for thermocouple connectors include

Contact material

Contact plating and

Wire size

For each type or thermocouple, the appropriate connector is attached to the thermocouple terminals.

Thermocouple connector plug or jack with ANSI color code are

Type K Yellow

Type J Black

Type T Blue

Type E Purple

Type N Orange

Type R/S Green

Type C Red

Connection are of two main types contact and crimp.

Contact-type devices have

a)Pins or plugs-designated as male connectors

b)sockets or receptacles- termed female

Crimp connectors is the physical compression (deformation) of a contact around a conductor to form an electrical and mechanical connection. Some thermocouple connectors feature quick wiring caps that allow the user to insert wires into the caps and then tighten the screws.

General Home appliances which uses tcs

Gas space heaters,Room heaters,Boilers

These type of appliances uses screw in, clamp or push in pilot burners. Choose the required model from the available probes but refer your manual for replacement and model type before making a purchase.

Patio heaters

These are different type of space heaters which require a specially made probes to fit in the stove.

Gas/electric oven or stove used in household cooking

They are located under the burner. You can locate it after opening the lower panels given in ovens. Most modern oven come with electronic temperature control. They are required to cook your food at required temperature So a thermostat is used to control the temperature. Their design may be different depending upon the company or model of oven. Ovens or stoves have special type of probe which is thin and long. They are connected with a thermostat which is responsible for the controlling action. Complete set of probe and thermostat are available.

Pellet stove

These type of stove uses pellet or wood pieces for lighting .Another tcs are used for its temperature control.

For pyrometer or kilns.

These types have high temperature applications.

For exhaust gas temperature monitors

Generally used to monitor the temperature the exhaust gas of automobile or internal combustion engine so that driver have an indication of air-fuel ratio which should not be higher than required. If it is so then the exhaust temperature will be higher then normal.

For refrigerators (Lagering and brewing)

Generally to replace the tc of your refrigerator you need the model number and company of the fridge. But many times you need to control the temperature of your freezer for certain application like brewer making wine making etc.For that certain general purpose probes with thermostat are available.

Surface tc probes

These types are used to measure the surface temperature of hot plates griddles, central heating radiators etc.They are also helpful in plumbing applications like measuring the temperature of pipes, radiators, boilers etc to maintain an efficient heating system.

For meat (Food processing/catering)

Your food items may require to measure its temperature for culinary purpose. Correct temperature improves its taste and prevent from damage.


Types of thermocouples

Thermocouples are categorized based on their use, sensitivity and temperature range. They can be easily identified by using the color chart.

Type K (Chromel / Alumel)

Sensitivity -41 µV/°C.

Temperature range –270 to 1372°C.

Use: General purpose use like process plants etc. It is oldest and therefore most commonly used. Its probes are of all varieties and have its temperature range is quite wide making it applicable in relatively vast processes. Its can readily be used in oxidizing or inert environment. However in reducing or vacuum it can deteriorate. Nickel part of the probe is magnetic so its show abrupt variation in emf above temperature around 220.

Type E (Chromel / Constantan)

Sensitivity (68 µV/°C) Highest sensitivity in terms of EMF /°C or °F of any of the thermocouples

Overall range –270 to 1000°C useful range 95-900 degrees C

It is mainly used for cryogenics or very low temperature measurement .Another advantage is Its none of the wires are magnetic. Suitable in oxidizing environment which are clean and not partially oxidizing or frequent change in environment from oxidizing to reducing.

Type J (Iron / Constantan)
Useful range (-45 to +760 °C)

Use: Equipment that can not accept ‘modern’ is magnetic so above curie temperature around 750 it can loose calibration. Reducing, Vacuum, Inert environment .It can detoriate at high temperature at high temperature in oxidizing or sulphurous environment below zero temperature application is also not suitable because of iron conductor may rust or form embritllement. So it is used upto 450 °C.

Type N (Nicrosil / Nisil)

650 -1260 degrees C –270 to 1300°C

Use: It is stable as it does not show abrupt emf change like type k. Also at high temperature it does not oxidizes. was made as a better replacement of type K. Type B s or R are TC are also stable type of thermocouple but their sensitivity is not so good at low temperature so the are mostly used for high temperature. Also N type is much cheaper.

Type R/S/B (Platinum type thermocouple)

These are noble metal thermocouple and one of the most stable types. But they are best applicable at high temperature because of the flat or constant emf response at temperature below 40-50°C Doe snot oxidizes in oxidizing condition like hot air. It is not enclosed in metal tubes because of high susceptibility to contamination ie diffusion of unwanted material etc.

They are mainly used in glass, semiconductor or steel industries to monitor the temperature of arch of this melting chamber of furnace where glass or steel is melted. They are generally enclosed in ceramic tube.

R (Platinum / Rhodium)
Overall range –50 to 1768°C.Useful range 870-1450 degrees C

S (Platinum / Rhodium)

Overall range –50 to 1768°C Useful range 980-1450 degrees C

sensitivity (10 µV/°C)

They are particularly used as standard for calibrating in melting point of gold.

B (Platinum / Rhodium)

Overall range 0 to 1820°C.Useful range1370-1700 degrees C (approx 10 µV/°C)

Type T (copper-constanan)

Overall range –270 to 400°C.Useful Range 200-350 degrees C.

Sensitivity 43 µV/°C.

They are good at low temperature so cryogenics very low temperature) application is its standard characteristics. They are Particularly useful where long presence of moisture in unavoidable such as food industries. Can be used in all types of environment inert, oxidizing or reducing provided they are mild and not extreme.

Type C tungsten 5% rhenium – tungsten 26% rhenium)

Overall range 0 to 2320°C.Useful range 1650-2315 degrees C

Well-suited for vacuum furnaces at extremely high temperatures. Not useful in presence of oxygen above 250 °C. They are used vehicle for space, nuclear reactor core, heating in industrial process etc. Tungsten is combustible at very high temperature so cannot be used in oxidizing environment. They are used in inert or hydrogen environment. Also in rigorous process of heating and cooling may cause embrittlement which then may cause breakage of wire due to vibration. This limits it to be used in all type of industrial heating.

Type M nickel alloy for each wire

0-1287 degrees C

Use: These thermocouples are used in vacuum furnaces for the same reasons as with type C.

This chart shows the various color codes for identifying the type of wire and its polarity based on the type of wire. These color codes are different in different countries and Also different for different types of thermocouples. You can identify the type of thermocouple by noticing the insulation color and the color used for different polarities wire.



Thermocouple manufacturers

Omega All range and types of Tc and other sensors. Complete range of instruments for industrial instrumentation.

KIMO instruments

Conac technologies Temperature sensors and compression seal fittings solution.

ABB TC and TC transmitters.

Danfoss Sensors valves Heating and refrigeration control of appliances at home. Sensors switches and instrument for Industrial automation.

Endress hauser

Fluke Handheld instruments loggers, Calibrator, Thermometer, Surface Tc probe and local reading instruments.

Fluke calibration

Watlow Electric heaters and Temperature sensors and temperature controllers

Agilent technologies TC pressure or vacuum gauge. Industrial automation and lab service.

Parker Instrumentation
Calex electronics limited

United electrics controls

Gefran Industrial automation, controllers ,inverter for drives and sensors(temperature, pressure, position, force transducers(load cell) etc)

Thermal detection Temperature sensors for process and manufacturing industries.(Pharmaceuticals temperature probe, industrial straight TC, fitting.

Madison level pressure and temperature sensor(Tc, RTD, switch, thermistors) manufacturing


Marsh bellofram

Lab facility Complete range of instruments for TC and TC accessories. Connectors, cables, sensors, transmitters, fittings etc
bocon Temperature sensors. Limited variety of TC designed
Ust sensor industrial sensors(temperature, pressure etc)
West control solution
Tecpel Handheld TC for multimeters
H.heinz meb wider stande gmbh
Phoenux Tm gmbx
digitron Haldheld reading and data logging
Hayashi denko
Author grillo
Peak sensors
CMR Sensors for diesel and gas engines. Bearing temperature, exhaust gas temperature etc.
B+B Temp, pressure, humidity sensors
Rossel mestechnik Temp sensors for various industries.
Temsens instruments TC and other temperature sensors
Desin instruments
Pixsys Bayonate type TCs
Murphy Stainless steel straight TCs
Athena All range of TC design(straight, wires, extruders etc)
EDand D
Ihne and tesch
Fischer messtecnik Straight TC for process control and Tc transmitters.
Turk hillinger
Lm therm
Pico technology TC with handle or plug type or expose wire with connectors for use with data loggers at local reading
Hanna instruments
Engineer Cy
Rototherm Mineral insulated straight Tc with assemblies.
Nor cal products
Hoover dam technologies
LAPP group
teledyne technologies
acim jouanin
Nuova fima
fast heat
Suchy messtechnik
Alpha wire

Also see- 



Posted on Leave a comment

Get rid of Mosquitoes

Did you know that mosquitoes cause more human suffering than any other organism on the planet? Over one million people die from mosquito borne illnesses each year.

Fortunately in the United States, diseases such as Malaria, a disease that reportedly kills one child every 40 seconds is well under control.

However, mosquitoes are the cause and transmitters of many other debilitating illnesses that are alive and thriving in the US such as Dengue Fever, West Nile Virus and Zika Virus.

The temperature is on the rise and the spring rains are pouring. Have you prepared your house and safeguarded your family and pets from the most deadly animal in the world?

Before we go into the mosquito killer products available lets first look at some interesting facts about mosquitoes. The more we know about them, the easier it will be to kill them.

Mosquito Life Span

Mosquito Hatching Time

Every time a female mosquito decides to lay eggs in a source of stale water, around 200 eggs are deposited. These mosquito eggs are special in the fact that they have floats that allow them to stay above the water and will hatch within a couple days. These specialized eggs are not resistant to drying out, however. Often times, a pack of mosquito eggs can be confused for dirt or muck floating around in water. The science of a lifespan of a mosquito is very interesting in nature; the insect goes through 4 stages throughout it’s lifetime.

First, the mosquito hatches from the egg and turns into swimming larvae. It takes around 24 hours for the eggs to hatch if the temperature is right, and then the eggs will hatch into water where they will start searching for food. In fact, baby mosquitoes spend the first 10 days of their lives under water. A female will lay over 100 eggs at a time, but depending on the water source, there can be thousands of eggs present.

These baby mosquitoes eat tiny microscopic organisms living in the water they hatched in. These insects have no legs and move around with a tail-like structure. Mosquito larvae have a detailed head and brushes on their mouth which they use to feed with. These young insects must come to the surface to breath through their spiracles every few minutes. As you can see in the image below, eggs are laid in pools of water, sometimes even ponds, that are thriving with microscopic bacteria that the emerging baby mosquitoes will use as food.

Mosquito Life Expectancy

Many readers and individuals wonder what the average lifespan of a mosquito is during the summer months especially since they are so pesky and arouse so many problems. Depending on the species and the environment that the mosquito is living in, the maximum age of a mosquito varies greatly.

For example, an average lifespan of a female anopheles mosquito is generally under 24 weeks. The stages of egg, larva, and pupa mosquito’s life lats between 7 to 14 days, while the adult stage generally lasts a full 14 days. During this time, the female mosquito will be on the search for future mates and places to lay eggs after finding a blood source. The blood from a host is required to nurture the eggs in a pregnant mosquito fly.

The female mosquito is ready to mate almost immediately after becoming and adult fly.

The male mosquito can take up to 3 days for the reproductive parts to become fully developed enough to mate properly. Breeding and eating are the two main goals of these incredible specks of nature, practically in that order too.

On the contrary, a male mosquito generally will not live longer than 10 days. The only purpose of a male mosquito is to pollinate flower and mate with the females.

Another interesting fact that not very many people know is that these insects will usually not fly more than a mile from their hatching environment. It is said they can fly up to 5 miles from birth, but they are reluctant to move and don’t want to waste energy flying 1 mile per hour towards a goal.

Others ponder at how long do mosquitoes live indoors or simply during the colder months. Depending on the food source and the current temperatures of the house or shed that the flying insect may find shelter in, the lifespan could be shortened to a few hours.

If the temperature is below 50 degrees, they will start hibernating. Mosquitoes love warmer weather and will shut their bodies down for the winter. Any eggs laid will also go into a hibernation mode until it is warm enough for them to hatch.

Are mosquitoes choosy as to whom they bite ?

Science supports personal experience in this matter: mosquitoes are partial to certain people. Their preferences appear to be dictated by biochemical factors. Mosquitoes are drawn to carbon dioxide and amino acids respiratory and metabolic by products that are given off in different amounts by different people, and that increase for any given person as the level of physical exertion increases.

Mosquitoes also like heat, and since dark colors absorb heat, whereas light colors reflect it, they flock to dark clothing and hair. Because of all the metabolic variables, culicidologists those who study mosquitoes cannot say whether the insects similarly prefer dark skin to light. Haute cuisine for a mosquito, then, might take the form of a jogger in black Lycra at the close of his or her run.

How high do mosquitoes fly?

Mosquitoes typically fly less than 25ft from the ground. If they fly closer to the ground, they aren’t subjected to the wind conditions as much as they would be if they were flying higher. However, in saying that, there has been reports the the Aedes Aegypti have been found breeding in tree holes 40ft above the ground. They have also been found in apartments in Singapore on the 21st floor.

When are mosquitoes most active?

Peak activity for mosquitoes in the United States for most breeds is during dusk hours. However, there are approximately 175 mosquito species in the U.S and their activity levels and habits vary significantly. For example, the Aedes Aegypti prefers an indoor environment and is more likely to bite during the day (it doesn’t have to battle weather conditions inside the home). Conversely, the common house mosquito will avoid activity during the day to protect itself from sun exposure which can dehydrate and kill them and they commonly seek out damp, shady areas until dusk returns.

Do mosquitoes die after they bite you?

No, mosquitoes don’t die after biting humans, well they do eventually but not directly after one blood meal. If a mosquito is successful enough to bite multiple victims, they can lay eggs multiple times – as many as five clutches of more than 100 eggs.

What eats mosquitoes?

You will be glad to know that mosquitoes have their own natural predators that prey on mosquitoes such as bats, birds, lizards, spiders, fish and humans, we might not eat them but we can be their worst nightmare – especially a human armed with one of the best mosquito killers such as a dangerous mosquito fogger….look out mosquitoes!

Mosquitoes are incredibly resilient and adaptable and it would be extremely difficult to completely eradicate an entire species. Mosquitoes have been on Earth for millions of years and are likely to stick around for millions of years to come. You may be surprised to know that some mosquito species actually provide value in our ecosystems.

Not only are they a nutritious food source to certain animal species, mosquito larvae also feed on carcasses of insects in the water making nutrients such as nitrogen available for the surrounding plant community. Some female mosquitoes even pollinate plants ensuring plant reproduction.

Mosquitoes may serve a purpose, however their annoyance greatly outweighs their value and are the cause of death for millions of humans around the world; don’t feel guilty if you want to reclaim your outdoor residential area by killing off the mosquito population!

How to Kill Mosquitoes ?

Mosquito Fogger

Do mosquito foggers work? The simple answer is yes. A mosquito fogger is a very effective mosquito killer. If you are looking to control and/or eliminate your insect problem, an insect fogger is an ideal solution to this common frustration.

A mosquito fogger is a device used to disperse a variety of liquid chemicals into the air which is designed to repel or kill mosquitoes and other flying insects. Mosquito foggers are able to reduce these chemicals into microscopic particles, up to as much as 7 times finer than mist. The particle size is so small that it enables the fog to spread and float through the air and penetrate into deep foliage to seek out mosquitoes where they live and hide.


Mosquito foggers are suited to those who experience high populations of mosquitoes and other pesky, flying insects living around their homes or campsites and who need to get in and treat those really hard-to-reach areas such as under decks and front porches or penetrating deep shrubbery.

If you live near a lake or creek or in an area with high rainfall which enable mosquitoes to breed and you wish to exterminate mosquitoes relatively quickly with highly effective results, a mosquito fogger is an ideal mosquito killer for you.


Thermacell is a company commanding a large footprint in the mosquito repellent market and rightly so. Thermacell manufacture unique products that are proven to combat mosquitoes, black flies and noseeums. Their products have been put under rigorous scientific testing by the United States Department of Defense, and have been found to be effective in mosquito, black fly and noseeums prevention. Thermacell products are also used by the United States Army in combat theatres such as Iraq, Afghanistan and Kuwait.


Thermacell products are portable and easy to operate and are suited to those where portability and affordability is at the top of their list. If you are a regular camper, hunter, hiker or general outdoor enthusiast, the Thermacell lantern or portable device is for you. If you are a keen gardener or outdoor entertainer and you prefer not to invest and/or operate a mosquito fogger or large mosquito trap, and want a lower cost solution, Thermacell products are for you.

Mosquito Traps

The benefit of using a mosquito trap over a mosquito fogger is the minimal human effort required to operate it. Mosquito traps typically use a mosquito lure such as Octenol which mimics the human breath to attract and trap the mosquitoes in where they die. It really is a set and forget device so the biggest consideration you will need to address when purchasing a mosquito trap is the location of where your trap needs to be set up for maximum effectiveness. Identify areas around your home that either have standing water where mosquitoes breed, or dense foliage where mosquitoes live and ideally this is where you will need to place the trap.

Once you have your trap set up and you feel like it’s not working as effectively as you hoped, try another location. Factor in wind conditions and direction as mosquitoes may choose to fly upwind, downwind or crosswind in their search for a blood meal. Mosquitoes much prefer damp, shady areas as opposed to sunny spots, so keep that in mind when setting up your trap.


A mosquito trap is the preferable option for anyone who spends time outdoors, has access to electricity and prefers a set and forget device.

Other Mosquito Killers


Summit 20-Pack Mosquito Dunk

Summit Responsible Solutions Mosquito Bits

GreenStrike Mosquito Preventer

Bug zapper

Indoor Pest trap

High power trap

Repellent sticks

Mosquito spray

Mosquito Coil

Indoor Ultrasonic pest repellent

Home Remedies for Mosquito Bites

  1. Aloe Vera

We all are aware of the fact that Aloe Vera is able to heal numerous health conditions, but do you know that it is also extremely beneficial for treating mosquito bites? Just apply some gel from an Aloe Vera leaf directly on the mosquito bites and you’ll be guaranteed of getting relief from the swelling and itchiness instantly.

  1. Ice

When we apply ice on the bites, the nerves which are accountable for conducting the prickling sensation get numbed by the cold shock and thus we get temporary relief from the pain, as well as, itching. However, it is important to know that ice packs will not be able to alleviate the irritation permanently. Also be sure not to apply the ice on your skin directly; rather, wrap them with a piece of clean cloth. Ice works the same way marking an “x” does, it overrides the nerve cells near the bite and tricks your brain into thinking that it doesn’t itch any more. This is a perfect way to stop itching an annoying mosquito bite.

  1. Baking Soda

We use baking soda in our daily life for various purposes. Also known as sodium bicarbonate, it is a very useful mosquito bite therapy. At first prepare a paste by mixing 1 tablespoon of baking soda with an appropriate quantity of water. The resulting solution should be a pretty thick paste, but thin enough to still stir and mix. After applying the paste on the mosquito bite, leave it there for 10 minutes before rinsing it off. Repeat this method several times a day if needed. A quick tip is to make a large batch of the solution and cover it with tin foil or plastic wrap to ensure that it doesn’t dry out.

  1. Honey

Due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial characteristics, numerous individuals use honey as a home remedy for many health conditions. It is being used for hundreds of years for various healing purposes which support its use as a useful therapy for bug bites. All you need to do is apply a small drop of honey on the itchy bite which should be enough to give you instant relief. If you can, local honey is the best option, since it was created with the pollen of local flowers, it will be more in tune with your immune system and be able to produce significant results faster. Start asking around your town for local honey, since it can be a cure to a multitude of many other problems. Instead of buying stale and treated store-bought honey, go for some itch reducing honey that was made from the same plants the mosquitoes drink out of.

  1. Green Tea Bags

Among the most effective home remedies for mosquito bites, mention may also be made of green tea bags which you can apply directly on the afflicted area. Being rich in anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory characteristics, green tea will give you instant relief from the inflammation caused by the bug bites and will also accelerate the healing process by acting as an astringent. If needed, any type of tea will work and even Lipton’s ice tea can help reduce the swelling associated with the itchiness of a mosquito bite.

  1. Peppermint

Peppermint causes a cooling sensation which reaches our brain faster than the itching and thus it is an amazing remedy for mosquito bites. The human brain is able to process only one among the two sensations every time and the cooling agents take precedence more often than not. Remember those little mints that Sonic used to hand out that were so delectable they had to include more than one? Yeah, you want that kind of mint, the kind that will completely take your mind off and distract you from your mosquito bite in the mean time.

  1. Witch Hazel

Another important remedy for bug bites is witch hazel which is a plant-based astringent. Combine baking soda with witch hazel for preparing a paste which will aid in drawing out the excess fluid, thus easing the swelling. Witch hazel has been an effective ingredient in curing all types of ailments throughout the past decade, and bug bites just seem to be a perfect victim for this herbal remedy. Witch hazel can be bought at almost any major superstore, but you may have to ask around since it wanders in department depending on the store. In fact, Witch hazel and Aloe Vera seem to have a lot in common, so it is often recommended to use witch hazel as a replacement for Aloe Vera cream when in a pinch trying to get rid of itchy mosquito bites.

  1. Onion

Sliced or minced onion will reduce the inflammation and also soothe the itching. Furthermore, the mosquitoes will be repelled by the strong smell of the onion which should come as a welcome relief for us. Now, for many people, the smell of onions is absolutely repulsive and disgusting and they would never mess with this method. I recommend trying it for 10 minutes before knocking it because it seems to be very effective on many people if you can get past the horrendous smell. Then again, some people love the smell of onions. Consider chewing bubblegum while chopping the onions to prevent involuntary tears.

  1. Banana Peel

One of the many natural home remedies for mosquito bites are none other than banana peels! After you have consumed a scrumptious banana, simply rub the inside of the fruit’s peel on the afflicted skin where the bug has bitten. The itch will likely be relieved immediately! On top of this, you will also smell fantastic. The idea is that there are special compounds inside the banana’s peel that reduce the inflammation of your skin due to the allergic reaction of the bite.

  1. Hot Spoon

A fast and easy solution to prevent a bug bite from itching will be to hold a spoon underneath a sizzling faucet till it becomes hot and then apply it on the bite for a few minutes. The proteins that trigger the itching are broken down by the warmth of the spoon, thus stopping the ache and soothing the skin.

  1. Rubbing Alcohol

Rubbing alcohol is one among the well-liked home remedies for mosquito bites that may be utilized to ease the itchiness and eliminate the chance of any type of infection.

Absorb the alcohol using a cotton swab and then put it to the contaminated areas of the skin. Initially, it could cause some itching; however, you will quickly feel comfy from the irritation. Mouthwash may also be used as an alternative of rubbing alcohol. Just remember that this can dry out your skin very easily, and thus moisturizer should be used after each treatment.

  1. Toothpaste

Toothpaste can also help in easing the irritation triggered by the mosquito bites. Just massage some amount of toothpaste into the affected parts of the skin. For quicker results, use toothpaste which is extracted from mint because of its anti-inflammatory qualities which makes it one of the most effectual home remedies for mosquito bites. An alternative to the toothpaste method is to simply mix some baking soda or a dilute solution of vinegar in with the toothpaste. The itching caused by the allergic reaction will quickly go away and you will be itch free in no time.

Also see-

How to Get Rid of Fleas (DIY)

How to Get Rid Of Bed Bugs

Get rid of head lice

How to Get Rid of Mice

How to Get Rid of Bees

How to get rid of termites

How to get rid of Spiders

Get rid of cockroaches


Posted on Leave a comment

21st Century democracy-Get rid of Rudimentary Politics

This post is a transcript of following Video. It explains the short coming of current politics and how can we overcome it. It is really well presented but is still hard for common man to hold attention to for long time aka boring.


So I translated it for reading which is easier to grasp for really curious minds.

The idea that there’s something rotten wrong with our democracy has become a truism especially in the wake of public outrage over MPs expenses but what really is it that’s wrong with our system of democracy and what is it that needs to be done.

My observation begins with this that democracy can only be as successful as we the people make it. But how well-suited are we to being good democrats.

We’ve come over recent years to understand more about the idiosyncrasies(particularity) of our mental processes as some of these appear to compromise our ability to make wise and fair democratic judgments.

We are for example a bit confused about the medium and the long term. If people are asked to choose between 50 pounds now 100 pounds in a year most of us will take the 50 quid.

But if we’re asked to choose between 50 pounds in five years and a hundred pounds in six years which in a way is the same choice we’ll all choose the hundred.

We tend to be risk-averse feeling more strongly about losing something we have than gaining something we don’t.

There are problems to run our objectivity. We tend systemically to think our own successes are a result of our qualities but our failures down to circumstance and we think the precise opposite of other people.

To take a trivial example 90% of us report that we are above average drivers.

And there are problems with our judgement. We’re not very good at predicting what will make us happy and even more surprisingly we’re not even very good at describing what made us happy in the past.

Now we don’t think like this because we’re bad or because we’re damaged. This is just how we have evolved.

So..short-term, innumerate(unknowledgeable) and self-centered…On the face of it we don’t look like we’re particularly suited to being good democratic citizens.

But of course this isn’t the whole story because surely democratic processes should involve overcoming the problems of applying prehistoric instinct to the complexities of the modern world.

Instead shouldn’t it mean working together to make good decisions despite
our limitations. This I think is where the core problem lies because instead of democracy being
understood and arranged as a realm in which we think past our mental predispositions(inclination) it offers to be a sphere where we can pander(give in to) to them.

The democratic process itself has taken on the language the norms and the techniques of consumerism. The customer is always right is echoed in the motto of triangulated politics.

The voter is always right. Or as we should say in our electoral system the voter in the marginal constituency is always right.

Worcester woman is always right. The problem is she isn’t.

Take these findings. Most of us think more power should be devolved to the local level and even bigger majority say that public service standards should be exactly the same everywhere.

Patient satisfaction ratings for the NHS are higher now than they have ever been in the history of the NHS.

But 56 percent of us think the health service is in crisis.

We agree that we need to change our lives to counter global warming but admit we have no plans to do so ourselves.

Now it’s hard enough I know because I used to work in Downing Street. It’s hard enough for politics to reconcile different interests and preferences in society.

But now a combination of the complexity of modern life and consumerist expectations mean that politicians face the challenge of reconciling conflicting interests and preferences in the same people.

Generally it’s a challenge that they dodge.

So if we wanted people to see democracy as inherently about dilemmas and trade-offs about balancing interests within people within society and across time what are the kinds of things we might do.

First devolve more power because it’s easier at the local level for people to relate to issues and see trade-offs and to appreciate how their own behavior shapes those trade-offs.

Second every year the government should hold at least two high-profile national citizens juries on major policy questions and with the government committed either to implementing the recommendations or explaining why not.

And Third require all policy advice to ministers to be published in full. Every policy has disadvantages and it’s about time politicians came clean about this.

Now lest you’re worried of my inconsistency I freely admit that they’re probably downsides to those three proposals.

My point is this the problem with our democracy is not as we often think about
the performance of politicians nor even the workings of our Constitution but it’s about the content of the democratic conversation.

Proper processes of democratic deliberation in which we either participate directly or which we can acknowledge as legitimate would help us to be less petulant wiser and the more responsible taskmasters or our beleaguered(under pressure) representatives.

So these are some of the practical ways we might encourage people to be better citizens. But what could new thinking about human nature mean for our broader view of society.

One of the most powerful concepts in modern sociology is that of reflexivity developed and popularized by the author of the Third Way Anthony Giddens.

Putting it simply this is the idea that modern citizens do not see themselves as mere objects of impersonal religious, national or class forces but as subjects of their own lives each with their own individual story.

Giddens talks about moving from class politics to life politics. This he contends must enable citizens to work through issues at the intersection of personal life stories and social forces in the changing context of the 21st century.

In absence of the binds of tradition and deference(Respect) Gibbons argues we must rely on new democratic discourse to work through the challenges of modernity promoting responsibilities, new forms of solidarity and trust in new social institutions.

But there’s a problem and the problem is reflexive individuals, their self-centeredness reinforced by free-market ideology and consumerist mass marketing can all too easily fail to see why they need these new forms of discourse.

Can’t they just do what they want and leave the rest to the hidden hand of the market or the hapless(unfortunate) blundering(err) of the political classes.

So I believe both the case for a new collective spirit and the principles that could underpin(support) the development of modern civic and democratic spaces are to be found in thinking about human nature.

Cooperation and engagement are not things we ought to do but a necessity to help us steer a course through the modern world using brains that evolved before the invention of the wheel.

We became the social animals we are subsisting(surviving) enclosed homogeneous communities with deeply respected and very slowly evolving bodies of knowledge and culture our first 200,000 years.

We find ourselves now, the last 50 years living as part of an economically abundant diverse communities in a fast changing global knowledge economy.

This moment in human affairs has been characterized as the teenage years of the post enlightenment project. A period of change in creativity but also self-indulgence, confusion and some danger.

As a schoolboy socialists in the 1970s direct grant Grammar School the first explicitly political arguments I ever had were about human nature.

My vision of the good society arrested on a view that people are fundamentally collaborative and benign(kind). Something only hidden by the depredations of what I called the system. Working-class Tory(member or supporter of conservative party in UK) mates mocked my naivety.

To them we were all self-interested individuals. Those who succeeded did so by their own efforts those who failed or cheated would only change if they were incentivized or compelled.

Yet for most of the 20 years subsequently that I’ve been involved in politics, debates about human nature have been restricted to criminality and other social pathologies as if only bad people fail to conform to the rational man model of neoclassical economics.

Gibbons was right. New times do require a rethinking of old political categories, new thinking about human nature, combining insights from natural science, social science and philosophy encouraged us to revisit and recombine ideas from the left and the right.

The left is right that society matters but the right is right to believe that growing self-reliance and thickening civic binds provides a more powerful even for slower and Messier route to social progress than the well-intentioned schemes of state bureaucracies.

A new politics of human nature encourages us to accept the flaws in our intuitive sense of self, recognizing our psychological frailties and acknowledging the social nature of the brain.

It requires us to see that the existential mirror of modernity is distorting. I have in the past described the contrasts found in an opinion poll after opinion poll between our undue personal optimism and our equally undue social pessimism.

But the individual and personal is not quite the domain of self-control we imagined it to be and if we are creative and ambitious we can exert more influence over the social sphere than we’ve tended to think possible.

It may not be an easy route to the fulfillment of our amazing human potential but is there really any other. And it’s a route that I hope through its lectures, through its research projects and through the actions of our amazing fellows the RSA will help to chart in the years ahead.

Also see-

Best shopping sites in India-Poly Tickle VLSI


Posted on Leave a comment

Moringa Oleifera-The miracle tree-Get rid of more than 300 diseases

What is moringa oleifera?

Moringa oleifera is a very common tree native to Indian subcontinent. But it has only recently come into picture with its health benefits. Its fruit-the drum stick is a very commonly used vegetable. Also its flowers are used in some Indian cuisines.

It is so common in India that it is usually discarded or thrown away. This is because even Indians are not aware of its benefits. I have used it personally and haven’t seen any side effects.

Dating back the Ancient Greeks and Romans, moringa oleifera has been extensively cultured to be a supplier of many natural remedies.

Most know the moringa oleifera tree as the drumstick tree because of its native tropical home.

The western world answers the question, “What is moringa oleifera?” with, “The horse radish tree.” It is known as the horseradish tree because of its roots.

Regardless of what it is called or what part of the tree gives it its popularity, moringa oleifera extract along with moringa oleifera leaf brings with it a wealth of health benefits.

How does moringa benefit the body?

Taken from a small tree in India, moringa oleifera extract and the moringa oleifera leaf have both been proven by many to reap many health benefits. In fact, when people ask, “What are the moringa oleifera health benefits?” or “Do I need moringa oleifera leaf or moringa oleifera extract?” the answer has to be prefaced with, “Every part of the three offers a different health benefit.” That’s right moringa oleifera leaf differs from oleifera extract. In fact, every single part of the tree brings with it some benefit to the body.

The Wonders behind the Miracle Tree

“The Miracle Tree” is irrefutably a strong description especially if branded on a tree with ironically tiny leaves. But its irony also keeps us wonder what’s in those tiny leaves that made Moringa Oleifera the miracle tree.

Science, with the use of its comprehensive researches, has finally verified what ancient folklores have known from their first-hand experience – Moringa oleifera is indeed the miracle tree. It may seem unbelievable but Moring oleifera’s tiny leaves can sustain a person’s life even if that’s all he has to eat.

  • Antioxidants
  • Immune-boosting agents
  • Anti-inflammatory agents
  • Antiviral agents

Biggest health benefits of the moringa oleifera leaf

In fact, the moringa oleifera leaf, great source of vitamins and minerals. One Cup Moringa oleifera leaf serving offers:

  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Zinc
  • Manganese
  • Magnesium
  • Selenium
  • Copper
  • Chromium
  • Phosphorus
  • Essential amino acids

Moringa oleifera leaf also contains essential B-complex vitamins that work to metabolize fat. These include:

  • Niacin
  • Vitamin B-6
  • Vitamin B-1
  • Pantothenic acid
  • Foliates
  • Riboflavin

What are the biggest health benefits of moringa oleifera extract?

Moringa oleifera extract has been dubbed the “tired blood” drug because of its proven ability to help with illness and disease. It has been confirmed to help with:

  • High cholesterol
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Heart disease
  • Arthritis
  • Inflammation

Recent students have found links between moringa oleifera extract and cancer remedies. While these findings are still in the research phase, moringa oleifera extract is showing very promising results in the fight to cure cancer—especially with regard to tumors.

Moringa oleifera extract is also very high in antioxidants. Antioxidants fight off free radicals in the body, so they have been linked to reduce the odds of type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

Moringa Oleifera: The Miracle Tree

The reason behind why Moringa oleifera is labelled as “The Miracle Tree” was rooted long before our ancestral foundation. Indian legends used to convey stories that this tree can prevent over 300 known diseases of the world. However, despite Moringa oleifera’s sturdy ancestral support, people of today’s generation questions its efficiency by asking is Moringa oleifera worthy enough to be called as the Miracle tree?

All parts of this tree including its seeds, pods, bark, roots, and leaves, are nutritionally significant making it one of the most generous contributors of life enhancing nutrients. The table below shows the most common nutrients found in Moringa oleifera:




Vitamin C

7 times the amount in Orange

Helps the body fight diseases

Vitamin A

4 times the amount in Carrots

Acts as a shield against eye, skin, heart, and gastrointestinal diseases


4 times the amount in milk

Builds strong bones and teeth


3 times the amount in Bananas

Aids in the normal function of brain and nerve cells


2 times the amount in Yogurt

Basic building block of cells


Moringa oleifera houses several nutrients and micronutrients that do not only help your body fight against many diseases but also make you glow in a healthy radiance. As research studies dig deeper to the molecular mechanisms of Moringa, the more Moringa oleifera divulges its all-natural nutritional wonders.

Also see-

Best protein powders